[340] Miles Franklin is the namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about Australian life. [156] The south-east ranges from oceanic (Tasmania and coastal Victoria) to humid subtropical (upper half of New South Wales), with the highlands featuring alpine and subpolar oceanic climates. School attendance, or registration for home schooling,[305] is compulsory throughout Australia. The remaining 9.7% of the population did not provide an adequate answer. [172] All these factors have led to Australia's having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world. The World Macedonian Congress – Australia. There is no single criterion that makes a country sovereign, but sovereignty in the modern world usually refers to a government's ability to enforce laws over territory. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. ], which in turn has affected Australia, significantly hampering its economic growth in recent years[when?]. [64] William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 (while serving as a crewman under pirate Captain John Read[65]) and again in 1699 on a return trip. The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". [86] Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance. As a result, Australia is running a biocapacity reserve. Australia is highly urbanised, with 67% of the population living in the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (metropolitan areas of the state and mainland territorial capital cities) in 2018. [ac] The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe. [383][384] The country regularly competes among the world elite basketball teams as it is among the global top three teams in terms of qualifications to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics. Australia’s State Govt Debts a Relevant Sovereign Rating Driver Wed 16 Dec, 2020 - 9:05 PM ET Fitch Ratings-Hong Kong/Sydney-16 December 2020: Rising debt among Australia’s state governments will be factored into Fitch Ratings’ assessments of the country’s sovereign rating as it emerges from the coronavirus pandemic shock. In a move that highlights the growth of investor activism in the sovereign bond space, an Australian student has filed a claim with Australia’s Federal Court alleging a lack of appropriate disclosure regarding the risk that climate change poses to Australian government bonds.. The communist nation of 1.4billion owns an airport in Western Australia, nine million hectares of Australian land, several wind farms and even the Port of Darwin, a key strategic asset. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories[306] so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16. Constitutions and peace treaties formalize the location of these borders. ", Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity, Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Australia–New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement, Median household income in Australia and New Zealand, partial deregulation of the labour market, List of cities in Australia by population, most sparsely populated countries in the world, Programme for International Student Assessment, Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics, "16. In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Geological Society of London Special Publication 346. [289], Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has become the major religion practised in Australia. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries. Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, The State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognised as a state by Israel and has received diplomatic recognition from. De eerste Britse Sovereign is geslagen in 1489 door Koning Henry VII. How on earth did Australia become a country with sovereign risk concerns? For much of Australian history, the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious denomination, with a large Roman Catholic minority. Current Assets for NSW Generations Fund is $7,644,820,000 and SWFI has 2 periods of historical assets, , 1 Opportunities/RFPs, 3 personal contacts available for CSV Export. The case is gaining worldwide attention, with coverage quickly taken up by The New York Times, among others. The name is not strictly accurate, because parts of the range consist of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 metres (5,249 ft) in height. [385] Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania. But it’s still not too late to stop the flood of our natural resources overseas. "Republic of Ireland" (the official. [53][54] Recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained. Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003. [55][56] Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. It can also be used in a less political manner to refer to a region or cultural area that has no governmental status. A; As adjectives the difference between country and sovereign is that country is from the countryside or connected with it while sovereign … [23][24][25], Australia is a developed country, with the world's thirteenth-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. [273] A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. Australia's per-capita GDP is higher than that of the UK, Canada, Germany, and France in terms of purchasing power parity. [261][262], Australia has an average population density of 3.3 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. [210][211], Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization,[212][213] and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement[214] and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand,[215] with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China—the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement—and Japan,[216] South Korea in 2011,[217][218] Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and as of November 2015[update] has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification. [256] Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. [264] Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. [314] In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava. [351], The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era. [333] The impressionistic works of Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and other members of the 19th-century Heidelberg School—the first "distinctively Australian" movement in Western art—gave expression to nationalist sentiments in the lead-up to Federation. The Palestine Liberation Organization, which enjoys recognition by a majority of UN member states as the sole representative of the Palestinian people, also does not recognise Israel. It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Cretaceous. (ed) 2004. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands, and the mainland of Australia. NSW Generations (Debt Retirement) Fund Investment Trust (NSW Generations Fund) is a Sovereign Wealth Fund located in Sydney, NSW Australia, Australia and Pacific, and was founded in 2018. [250] In Australia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue. An obsession with “balancing the budget” has left Australia under-funded despite its immense wealth. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. [366] Vegemite, pavlova, lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian foods. The S&P Australia Sovereign Bond Index is designed to measure the performance of local currency sovereign bonds from Australia. [185][186] Thus, in practice the governor-general acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the prime minister and the Federal Executive Council. [338] In the 1870s, Adam Lindsay Gordon posthumously became the first Australian poet to attain a wide readership. [349] At the beginning of the 20th century, Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers. [188], Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. World Macedonian Congress – Australia (WMC-A) condemn the current capitulation of Prime Minister Zoran Zaev to Greece’s demands on name changes within the Republic of Macedonia. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts. [181] The country has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its constitution, which is one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901. Tajikistan contains one autonomous region. [m] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. Australia is the oldest,[16] flattest,[17] and driest inhabited continent,[18][19] with the least fertile soils. [317] About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[257] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). [m], China is not recognised by 15 UN member states and the Holy See, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognise Taiwan instead.[n]. Those who reported having no religion increased conspicuously from 19% in 2006 to 22% in 2011 to 30.1% in 2016. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism[223] and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Australia contains. Under the definition set by international law, a sovereign nation has a defined territory with just one government. This page includes the government debt credit rating for Australia … [318][319][320], Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with 812,000 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2019. [71] Thousands more died as a result of frontier conflict with settlers. [108] The Australia Act 1986 severed the remaining constitutional ties between Australia and the UK. [209] It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. [194][195] Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. Australia is the latest of more than half a dozen countries, including China in 2019, to introduce changes to its foreign investment rules. [60] The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. 96 ] Australians took part in many of the lowest levels of religious in. The unintended consequence of this is to increase perceptions of sovereign risk ” is not by! 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