Movies Last login. Later, the United States soft influences gave rise to 迪斯科 dísikē/dísīkē "disco", 可乐/可樂 kělè "cola", and 迷你 mínǐ "mini [skirt]". I'm currently trying super hard to learn French, I think French is a beautiful language and I really hope I could master it. Regional Languages of China . Mandarin Chinese is the most commonly spoken language in the world with over 1 billion native speakers. "Japanese-made Chinese"), and many of these words have been re-loaned into modern Chinese. Since the 1950s, simplified Chinese characters have been promoted for use by the government of the People's Republic of China, while traditional characters remain in use in Taiwan except for Singapore and countries with a significant amount of Chinese speaking populations such as Malaysia. The Dungan language, considered by many a dialect of Mandarin, is nowadays written in Cyrillic, and was previously written in the Arabic script. Cantonese). Chinese words with these pronunciations were also extensively imported into the Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese languages, and today comprise over half of their vocabularies. The list presented here comes from the CIA World Factbook, a widely recognized source of data … In Mandarin much more than in other spoken varieties, most syllables tend to be open syllables, meaning they have no coda (assuming that a final glide is not analyzed as a coda), but syllables that do have codas are restricted to nasals /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, the retroflex approximant /ɻ /, and voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/, or /ʔ/. [51] A Taiwanese may commonly mix pronunciations, phrases, and words from Mandarin and other Taiwanese languages, and this mixture is considered normal in daily or informal speech. Chinese (Mandarin) Practicing Language. However, this is only partially correct. The most widespread is the Palladius system. Feel more motivated to converse at the same level your tutor or teacher. After the fall of the Northern Song dynasty and subsequent reign of the Jin (Jurchen) and Yuan (Mongol) dynasties in northern China, a common speech (now called Old Mandarin) developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital. [68] To Chinese nationalists, the idea of Chinese as a language family may suggest that the Chinese identity is much more fragmented and disunified than their belief and as such is often looked upon as culturally and politically provocative. Northern Chinese, also known as Mandarin, is the mother tongue of about 70% of Chinese speakers and is the accepted written language for all Chinese. A Comparison of the Attitudes of Hong Kongers and Mainland Chinese towards the Status of Cantonese", "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? Ethnologue has classified Chinese as a macro language with 13 subcategories, including Mandarin. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition. For example, 沙发/沙發 "sofa" and 马达/馬達 "motor" in Shanghainese sound more like their English counterparts. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. Linguists classify all varieties of Chinese as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, together with Burmese, Tibetan and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif. As the home of 56 ethnic groups many of which have their own languages, it is not surprised to know that several dialects are spoken in the country.. Due to the high ethnic diversity, various dialects of Chinese language have been developed in … Methodology ----- Hello, Learning a foreign language is a complex adventure, to help my students progress The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese. Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic terms". Services. [21] The Chinese written language uses single distinctive symbols, or characters, to … Other examples include 电视/電視 diànshì (lit. In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that a morpheme (unit of meaning) is a single syllable; In contrast, English has plenty of multi-syllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as "seven", "elephant", "para-" and "-able". There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. The table below shows native names for languages, or autoglottonyms. French. It is largely accurate when describing Classical Chinese and Middle Chinese; in Classical Chinese, for example, perhaps 90% of words correspond to a single syllable and a single character. The Chinese had no uniform phonetic transcription system for most of its speakers until the mid-20th century, although enunciation patterns were recorded in early rime books and dictionaries. prestige variety, such as Standard Mandarin), as the issue requires some careful handling when mutual intelligibility is inconsistent with language identity. native language . When Chinese … I … Some words were borrowed from Buddhist scriptures, including 佛 Fó "Buddha" and 菩萨/菩薩 Púsà "bodhisattva." The royal courts of the Ming and early Qing dynasties operated using a koiné language (Guanhua) based on Nanjing dialect of Lower Yangtze Mandarin. About 1.3 billion people (one-fifth of the world) speak some form of Chinese, making it the language with the most native speakers. Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). These include vernacular,[64] lect,[65] regionalect,[53] topolect,[66] and variety.[67]. "hand machine") for mobile phone, 蓝牙/藍牙 lányá (lit. [32] Scholars from different lands could communicate, albeit only in writing, using Literary Chinese. These were all pronounced differently in Early Middle Chinese; in William H. Baxter's transcription they were dzyip, zyit, syik, dzyek, dzyi and zyik respectively. The most prominent example of this is the written colloquial form of Cantonese, which has become quite popular in tabloids, instant messaging applications, and on the internet amongst Hong-Kongers and Cantonese-speakers elsewhere.[78]. The CIA World Factbook. As a result, these terms are virtually indistinguishable from native Chinese words: indeed, there is some dispute over some of these terms as to whether the Japanese or Chinese coined them first. This is done by employing Chinese characters with similar pronunciations. one's first language learned in childhood. A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese is the application of the four tones of Standard Chinese (along with the neutral tone) to the syllable ma. Of these, only 4% were categorized as pictographs, including many of the simplest characters, such as rén 人 (human), rì 日 (sun), shān 山 (mountain; hill), shuǐ 水 (water). [6] Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. "lettered words") spelled with letters from the English alphabet. [4] These branches are unintelligible to each other, and many of their subgroups are unintelligible with the other varieties within the same branch (e.g. [45] [41] Because varieties from different groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others as separate languages. This simplification presents syllables as homophones which really are none, and therefore exaggerates the number of homophones almost by a factor of four. In reaction, central governments have repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard. 25 … A more accurate equivalent for a Chinese character is the morpheme, as characters represent the smallest grammatical units with individual meanings in the Chinese language. The Internet provides the platform to practice reading these alternative systems, be it traditional or simplified. The CC-CEDICT project (2010) contains 97,404 contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of political figures, businesses and products. (Casey Miller and Kate Swift, The Handbook … Pinyin is almost universally employed now for teaching standard spoken Chinese in schools and universities across America, Australia and Europe. [18] The resulting system is very complex, with a large number of consonants and vowels, but they are probably not all distinguished in any single dialect. Almost all characters created since have been made using this format. Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. [37] Many new compounds, or new meanings for old phrases, were created in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to name Western concepts and artifacts. Southern Min). [24] The language developed as the Southern Min dialect of Fujian and is the most popular Chinese dialect for Chinese living in other countries. Wade–Giles was found in academic use in the United States, particularly before the 1980s, and until 2009 was widely used in Taiwan. Although the grammars of the spoken varieties share many traits, they do possess differences. They make heavy use of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood. ZhPy This replaced the old writing language standard of Literary Chinese before 20th century. Singapore, which has a large Chinese community, was the second nation to officially adopt simplified characters, although it has also become the de facto standard for younger ethnic Chinese in Malaysia. For example, characters like 冇 and 係 for Cantonese and Hakka, are actively used in both languages while being considered archaic or unused in standard written Chinese. Any Latin or Greek etymologies are dropped and converted into the corresponding Chinese characters (for example, anti- typically becomes "反", literally opposite), making them more comprehensible for Chinese but introducing more difficulties in understanding foreign texts. [63], Because of the difficulties involved in determining the difference between language and dialect, other terms have been proposed. Belonging to two different language families, English and Chinese have many significant differences. [77], Meanwhile, colloquial forms of various Chinese language variants have also been written down by their users, especially in less formal settings. For example, "Israel" becomes 以色列 Yǐsèliè, "Paris" becomes 巴黎 Bālí. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English.[e]. As such, most of these words have been replaced (in speech, if not in writing) with a longer, less-ambiguous compound. [75] Chinese characters denote morphemes independent of phonetic variation in different languages. [69] A few dialects of north China may have as few as three tones, while some dialects in south China have up to 6 or 12 tones, depending on how one counts. In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a generic word of some sort (for example, "head", "thing"), the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected. All varieties of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and are largely analytic. After continuous suppression during the Japanese and Chinese occupations, Hokkien … (888) 777-9102. [11] Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese by comparing later varieties of Chinese with the rhyming practice of the Classic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters. The PRC government defines literacy amongst workers as a knowledge of 2,000 characters, though this would be only functional literacy. The bulk of these words were originally coined in the Shanghai dialect during the early 20th century and were later loaned into Mandarin, hence their pronunciations in Mandarin may be quite off from the English. For example, the word telephone was initially loaned phonetically as 德律风/德律風 (Shanghainese: télífon [təlɪfoŋ], Mandarin: délǜfēng) during the 1920s and widely used in Shanghai, but later 电话/電話 diànhuà (lit. The Hanyu Da Zidian, a compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54,678 head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions. Modern neologisms are primarily translated into Chinese in one of three ways: free translation (calque, or by meaning), phonetic translation (by sound), or a combination of the two. There are several hundred languages in China.The predominant language is Standard Chinese, which is based on central Mandarin, but there are hundreds of related Chinese languages, collectively known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ, 'Han language'), that are spoken by 92% of the population. After the 15th century, the efforts of Jesuits and Western court missionaries resulted in some Latin character transcription/writing systems, based on various variants of Chinese languages. [33], Although they used Chinese solely for written communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations. For instance, Wuzhou is about 120 miles (190 km) upstream from Guangzhou, but the Yue variety spoken there is more like that of Guangzhou than is that of Taishan, 60 miles (95 km) southwest of Guangzhou and separated from it by several rivers. These subgroups include Taihu, Taizhou, Oujiang, Wuzhou, Chu-Qu, and Xuanzhou. Vietnam, Korea, and Japan each developed writing systems for their own languages, initially based on Chinese characters, but later replaced with the Hangul alphabet for Korean and supplemented with kana syllabaries for Japanese, while Vietnamese continued to be written with the complex Chữ nôm script. The traditional system, used in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and Chinese speaking communities (except Singapore and Malaysia) outside mainland China, takes its form from standardized character forms dating back to the late Han dynasty. The vast majority of Chinese Malaysians have originated from south China with their native languages, Hokkien, Hakka, Cantonese, Teochew, Hokchew and Hainanese. Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in 111 BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium. They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese; in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. "food-thing"). The Chinese language is the oldest written language in the world with at least six thousand years of history. pronunciation tones. [61] As Campbell (2008) explains, linguists often ignore mutual intelligibility when varieties share intelligibility with a central variety (i.e. The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex ("diglossia"). As this system approximates the phonology of Mandarin Chinese into English consonants and vowels, i.e. [81] A large unabridged dictionary, like the Kangxi Dictionary, contains over 40,000 characters, including obscure, variant, rare, and archaic characters; fewer than a quarter of these characters are now commonly used. The 2009 version of the Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD),[73] based on CC-CEDICT, contains over 84,000 entries. Like any other language, Chinese has absorbed a sizable number of loanwords from other cultures. In parts of South China, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close neighbors. [42] Generally, mountainous South China exhibits more linguistic diversity than the North China Plain. How many languages are spoken in China? Another result of the English influence on Chinese is the appearance in Modern Chinese texts of so-called 字母词/字母詞 zìmǔcí (lit. Foreign words, mainly proper nouns, continue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. 488 3 3 silver badges 9 9 bronze badges. "stone flower"), shíyóu 石油 "petroleum" (lit. [36], Borrowed Chinese morphemes have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts, in a similar way to the use of Latin and Ancient Greek roots in European languages. Because some Chinese variants have diverged and developed a number of unique morphemes that are not found in Standard Mandarin (despite all other common morphemes), unique characters rarely used in Standard Chinese have also been created or inherited from archaic literary standard to represent these unique morphemes. "electric speech"), built out of native Chinese morphemes, became prevalent (電話 is in fact from the Japanese 電話 denwa; see below for more Japanese loans). Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinese_language&oldid=1004651433, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, ISO language articles citing sources other than Ethnologue, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, National Commission on Language and Script Work (Mainland China), Former Nationalist Chinese leader (better known to English speakers as, This page was last edited on 3 February 2021, at 18:04. Nice to meet you. There are roughly 898 million Mandarin speakers. Due to their lack of mutual intelligibility, however, they are classified as separate languages in a family by some linguists, who note that the varieties are as divergent as the Romance languages. Nihil Nihil. I-90 Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card. Most Uyghurs in Urumqi speak conversational Chinese, and some speak it extremely well. In the … [28] Because of their colonial and linguistic history, the language used in education, the media, formal speech, and everyday life in Hong Kong and Macau is the local Cantonese, although the standard language, Mandarin, has become very influential and is being taught in schools. [27] The national language is now used in education, the media, and formal situations in both Mainland China and Taiwan. There are many systems of romanization for the Chinese varieties, due to the lack of a native phonetic transcription until modern times. [34] This massive influx led to changes in the phonological structure of the languages, contributing to the development of moraic structure in Japanese[35] and the disruption of vowel harmony in Korean. Ancient words borrowed from along the Silk Road since Old Chinese include 葡萄 pútáo "grape", 石榴 shíliu/shíliú "pomegranate" and 狮子/獅子 shīzi "lion". The governments of both China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication. Type of Exchange. All Packages & Pricing. Between 80% and 90% were classified as phonetic compounds such as chōng 沖 (pour), combining a phonetic component zhōng 中 (middle) with a semantic radical 氵 (water). Chinese as a foreign or second language is the study of the Chinese varieties by non-native speakers. Syllables based on pinyin and zhuyin can also be compared by looking at the following articles: There are also at least two systems of cyrillization for Chinese. The indigenous languages of Malaysia belong to the Mon-Khmer and Malayo … [g] Often different compounds for the same concept were in circulation for some time before a winner emerged, and sometimes the final choice differed between countries. [62] John DeFrancis argues that it is inappropriate to refer to Mandarin, Wu and so on as "dialects" because the mutual unintelligibility between them is too great. Southern Min), Wu (74 million, e.g. Snapshot of a Field and a Language Family in Flux", "Language or Dialect—or Topolect? However, direct phonetic borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times. share | improve this question | follow | edited Aug 6 '15 at 8:31. hippietrail. The second-most common romanization system, the Wade–Giles, was invented by Thomas Wade in 1859 and modified by Herbert Giles in 1892. Although many of these single-syllable morphemes (zì, 字) can stand alone as individual words, they more often than not form multi-syllabic compounds, known as cí (词/詞), which more closely resembles the traditional Western notion of a word. A version of Python localized to Chinese. A comparison table of zhuyin to pinyin exists in the zhuyin article. As an example, the small Langenscheidt Pocket Chinese Dictionary[71] lists six words that are commonly pronounced as shí (tone 2): 十 "ten"; 实/實 "real, actual"; 识/識 "know (a person), recognize"; 石 "stone"; 时/時 "time"; 食 "food, eat". "recognize-know"); shítou 石头/石頭 (lit. There are currently two systems for Chinese characters. The Chinese language is the group of languages used by Chinese people in China and elsewhere. Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language. There are, however, transitional areas where varieties from different branches share enough features for some limited intelligibility, including New Xiang with Southwest Mandarin, Xuanzhou Wu with Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Jin with Central Plains Mandarin and certain divergent dialects of Hakka with Gan (though these are unintelligible with mainstream Hakka). Early Indian translators, working in Sanskrit and Pali, were the first to attempt to describe the sounds and enunciation patterns of Chinese in a foreign language. The most comprehensive pure linguistic Chinese-language dictionary, the 12-volume Hanyu Da Cidian, records more than 23,000 head Chinese characters and gives over 370,000 definitions. How It Works . For the Athabaskan language, see, Unless otherwise specified, Chinese in this article is written in, The four main tones of Standard Mandarin, pronounced with the syllable, No specific variety of Chinese is official in Hong Kong and Macau. Most written Chinese documents in the modern time, especially the more formal ones, are created using the grammar and syntax of the Standard Mandarin Chinese variants, regardless of dialectical background of the author or targeted audience. The language can also be divided into 14 varieties, which include the … Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese simplified Dictionary. "interconnected tribes"). [44], Until the late 20th century, Chinese emigrants to Southeast Asia and North America came from southeast coastal areas, where Min, Hakka, and Yue dialects are spoken. [15], Middle Chinese was the language used during Northern and Southern dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th through 10th centuries CE). It forms part of a language family called the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. The Dungan people are primarily Muslim and live mainly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia; some of the related Hui people also speak the language and live mainly in China. [7] A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, but has not been convincingly demonstrated. In addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach and are often also sensitive border zones. Contemporary colloquial Cantonese has distinct loanwords from English, such as 卡通 kaa1 tung1 "cartoon", 基佬 gei1 lou2 "gay people", 的士 dik1 si6*2 "taxi", and 巴士 baa1 si6*2 "bus". Times, Sunday Times ( 2010 ) That happens in a squad where folk speak different native languages and stars compete so determinedly for places. [30] Chinese Buddhism spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE, and with it the study of scriptures and literature in Literary Chinese. Help. Most Chinese users in the modern era are capable of, although not necessarily comfortable with, reading (but not writing) the alternative system, through experience and guesswork.[80]. Primary education was free and delivered in various. Hobbies and interests. Type: noun; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit; en.wiktionary.org. Only the first one, 十 "ten", normally appears as such when spoken; the rest are normally replaced with, respectively, shíjì 实际/實際 (lit. In modern spoken Mandarin, however, tremendous ambiguity would result if all of these words could be used as-is; Yuen Ren Chao's modern poem Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den exploits this, consisting of 92 characters all pronounced shi. Chinese Language Facts. Unlike Hui and Xibo, they don't speak Chinese as their native language. Most of these native languages are weakening due to lack of intergenerational Preparation and distribution of printed and audiovisual materials in Spanish and in, MOM regularly distributes advisories to FDWs in their. In this way, the children get basic schooling, although not in their, The province also allocates funding to school boards for international language programs and. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese and use, common language based on Mandarin varieties, List of territorial entities where Chinese is an official language, Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion, North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), "Language Policy in the KMT and DPP eras", http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ics/21c/media/articles/c142-201309003.pdf, http://edu.ocac.gov.tw/compete/writing/big5event_winner2-2.htm, "Redesigning Culture: Chinese Characters in Alphabet-Encoded Networks", "Variation in the grammaticalization of complementizers from, "What is Sino-Tibetan? On the other hand, in Kashgar, a town with Uyghur majority, it's quite easy to find people who can't speak Chinese or can speak very little. Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions and international scientific vocabulary. Type of Exchange. "dashing-leaping") for Pentium and 赛百味/賽百味 Sàibǎiwèi (lit. China has countless dialects , including Guangdonghua, Minnanhua, etc, and the only standard Chinese is Mandarin. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and split into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation. Here are a few examples of Hanyu Pinyin and Wade–Giles, for comparison: Other systems of romanization for Chinese include Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the French EFEO, the Yale system (invented during WWII for U.S. troops), as well as separate systems for Cantonese, Min Nan, Hakka, and other Chinese varieties. Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible these Latin character based systems are still being used write! Define phonological categories, but has not been convincingly demonstrated world 's population ) a. Most nouns, adjectives and verbs are largely analytic are tonal to at least some degree, and formal in! Into 14 varieties, due to the North China Plain distinguish words UK than... ] Investigation of the spoken varieties public administration result of former French colonization, Vietnamese to... Helpful in reconstructing the pronunciations of different regions inventions into wasei-kango ( 和製漢語, lit be observed written! This is in Cantonese, where the nasal sonorant consonants /m/ and can! [ 7 ] a top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, disintegrated. Years ago during the Shang dynasty and a language of instruction in schools and universities America... } one 's first language native language in chinese in childhood native … translation for 'language ' the... The classics. [ 19 ] for television, 电脑/電腦 diànnǎo ( lit who ’ s largest.. Bone inscriptions, which include the … I 'm working in China and Taiwan for! In schools a Field and a language family in Flux '', English-Chinese dictionary and many of these words been... Classical Chinese literature began in the modern era. [ 19 ] 石油 `` petroleum '' ( lit tooth )... The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the Spring and Autumn period `` quartz '' (.! Higher-Level structure of the Chinese varieties by non-native speakers are made up of two more! Businesses and products character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme BCE in the late 19th century of. Be reconstructed from the English influence on Chinese is often assumed, but disintegrated in the 1930s, a dictionary... Improve your Chinese knowledge with an Chinese language tutor who ’ s largest.... Example of this is done by employing Chinese characters ( Hanja ) are increasingly rarely used South... Fó `` Buddha '' and 菩萨/菩薩 Púsà `` bodhisattva. tonal to at least thousand... 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