An inscription below the shield and spears and the hieroglyphic sign at the base of the cactus indicate that this is Tenochtitlán, the capital of Mexico and the symbolic center of the Aztec cosmos. Anales (1880) (14764117112).jpg 1,630 × 1,868; 482 KB. Unlike that of a typical fruit, the sweet white flesh of the lumpy autumnal-colored pods that sprout from the cacao tree, was considered by locals and European settlers alike to be “of little or no use” and as having a “phlegmatic” texture. Sep 21, 2014 - The Paris Codex (also known as the Codex Peresianus and Codex Pérez)[2] is one of three surviving generally accepted pre-Columbian Maya books dating to the Postclassic Period of Mesoamerican chronology (c. 900–1521 AD). The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created about twenty years after theSpanish conquest of Mexico with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, theHoly Roman Emperor and King of Spain. The frontispiece includes scenes of military conquest . It contains a history of both the Aztec rulers and their conquests as well as a description of the daily life of pre-conquest Aztec society.The codex is written in the Nahuatl language utilizing traditional Aztec pictograms with a translation and explanation of the text provided in Spanish. The gloss above Herrera's figure, "Acamapichtli primero The explored archeological remains are part of a city which functioned as an important regional ceremonial center. glyphs representing the hills Alhuexoyo (CI), Tecuauhtemalco (C2), and Tepan (E6) do not follow the pre-Hispanic style because they differ from the signs known from the Codex Mendoza and tend to be more realistic in representation. Before the arrival of Europeans, the cacao tree made its textual debut in the form of glyphs in pre-Columbian, that is, indigenous codices. Codex Mendoza glyphs‎ (33 F) Pages in category "Codex Mendoza" This category contains only the following page. de la capital de México. Intended as a gift to Charles V, the manuscript never reached the monarch. Compiled in Mexico City around 1541 under the supervision of Spanish clerics, the Codex was intended to inform King Charles V about his newly conquered subjects. The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, believed to have been created around the year 1541. Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020 The symbol of the Aztec Empire is represented on the frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. With this insight, he turned to the Madrid Codex, where the glyphs for the four directions had been identified. An interconnected world is not as recent as we think. Con unas dimensiones de 90 m. de lado y 17 m. de altura. The origins of the calendar. She appears in the frontispiece which depicts the "Landing of the Spaniards." Content Area 3: Early European and Colonial America, Set 4 study guide by amandasuarezg includes 52 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. c. 1541-1542 A.D. and made using ink and color on paper. [3] The document is very poorly preserved and has suffered considerable damage to the page edges, resulting in the loss of some of the text. Apparently each pair relates to a single taxation district, comprising all the towns in it, and the tribute enumerated was paid by the district as a whole. Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene (Brooklyn Biombo) 81 – Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza Viceroyalty of New Spain. c. 1541-1542 A.D. … Folio 2 recto appears in the image gallery and is labeled as such. C. Codex Mendoza; Media in category "Codex Mendoza" The following 186 files are in this category, out of 186 total. Add media. Luis de Riaño and indigenous collaborators, Church of São Francisco de Assis, Ouro Preto, Mestre Valentim, Passeio Publico, Rio de Janeiro, Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos of Congonhas do Campo, 1757-1872, Independence from Spanish rule in South America, Early Scientific Exploration in Latin America, Latin American artistic pilgrimages to Paris, Mundurukú Headdress: a glimpse of life in the Amazon rainforest, Kayapó Headdress: a glimpse of life in the Amazon rainforest, https://smarthistory.org/frontispiece-of-the-codex-mendoza/. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. He focused on the glyph for west, searching for syllables. The links to time can have an almost pedantic precision, as in the Codex Mendoza, where a New Fire ceremony in the reign of Huitzilihuitl does not just reach to the square cartouche of a year sign but to the day sign itself (Fig. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created fourteen years after the 1521 Spanish conquest of Mexico with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. chicha: A type of beer made from maize that was an integral part of Inka social rituals. See and Be Seen: (‘Smoking’) Mirrors The obsidian mirror in the Mexico gallery of the British Museum (right) never fails to fascinate visitors, and the name of the god with which the mirror is commonly associated - Tezcatlipoca - never fails to fascinate those who study the Mexica (Aztecs), for it means ‘Smoking Mirror’. The frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza (1541-1542), painted by an Aztec artist after the Spanish conquest, portrays the vision in a hybrid Aztec-Spanish style. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. Discover and re-discover Mexico’s cuisine, culture and history through the recipes, backyard stories and other interesting findings of an expatriate in Canada It was intended to be shown to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. The Aztec empire consisted of the city of Tenochtitlan and the many villages and territories captured by the Aztecs in the same way, say, as the city of Rome consisted of the many kingdoms and territories captured by the Roman armies. Cooper Clark's Codex Mendoza (1938, 3 vols.) Si bien los datos históricos son inciertos, el mito viene a consolidar las versiones según las cuales Motecuhzoma hubiera fallecido de las consecuencias de sus heridas, dejándose morir. The toponymic glyphs Ahua tepec (F2) and Tepan (E6), with trees, do not correspond to pre PIRAMIDE DE TENAYUCA. Berkeley, California, University of California Press, 1997. xiii, 268 pp. Compiled in Mexico City around 1541 under the supervision of Spanish clerics, the "Codex" was intended to inform King Charles V about his newly conquered subjects. Codex Mendosa Finnaria and Alexandra In this picture from the Codex Mendoza we can see that the glyphs are depicts Montezuma,a and his men ready for a battle. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. and European styles in the Codex Mendoza: An analysis of pictorial style’, 19 The statement calls out some mistranslations, noting that it was a in Berdan and Anawalt, The Codex Mendoza, 1: 25–33 and Gómez-Tejada, mistake for the interpreter to use the words alfaqui (a Muslim cleric ‘Making the Codex Mendoza’, chapters one and two. According to what is recorded by the Codex Mendoza’s images, 6,400 pieces of cloth were sent each year, thus agreeing with the “Tribute Record of Tlapa” and the Matrícula. Codex Mendoza este un codice aztec, creat aproximativ la douăzeci de ani după cucerirea spaniolă a Mexicului cu intenția de a fi văzut de Carol Quintul, împărat romano-german și rege al Spaniei.Codexul conține o istorie a conducătorilor azteci și a cuceririlor lor, o listă cu tributul plătit de către cei cuceriți, precum și o descriere a vieții de zi cu zi a aztecilor. The frontispiece includes scenes of military conquest . References. The Codex Mendoza was created at a time when practices of linguistic and cultural translation were critical to almost every aspect of public and private life in New Spain. What popular techni... Machu Picchu was a royal estate . Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Around 1541, the first viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, commissioned a codex to record information about the Aztec empire. Dec. 15, 2020. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza The Florentine Codex Bernardino de Sahagún and collaborators ... who rose to prominence in 600 C.E. I haven't personally seen the Codex or a facsimile--perhaps this is the first printed page? There are year glyphs surrounding the Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza . But it does show us how Indigenous artists imagined one of the festivals surrounding the agricultural cycle from the vantage point of their Colonial context. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CODEX MENDOZA The Codex Mendoza combines Aztec pictorial and glyphic images with written text in Nahuatl and Spanish to provide a kind of Ro- Setta stone for Mesoamerican studies. Blog. Every new-born child received this energy during the naming ceremony described by Motolinia and depicted in the The Codex Mendoza facsimile edition published by University of California Press, 1992; Request Info / Price. The Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza depicts a tzompantli holding single skull next to … The Essential Codex Mendoza, edited by Frances F. Berdan and Patricia Reiff Anawalt. The frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza addresses time directly, juxtaposing the setting of Tenochtitlan (the eagle on the cactus is a mythological representation of homeland), Mexica conquests (figures holding the hair of another showing victory), and Mexica defeat by the Spanish (smoke coming out of the square by the lower right corner). If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. One of these is the “Codex Mendoza,” named for the first viceroy of Mexico (1535-1550), who commissioned it c. 1542 (contributed to the Artstor Digital Library by the Bodleian Library). He was the hydraulic engineer whose friendship with the people of San Miguel Tulancingo Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. MEXICO. Front page of the Fejérváry-Mayer Codex. 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La diferencia esencial entre ambas gestas radica en el hecho de que Motecuhzoma se quedó al nivel de una veleidad de entrar al Cincalco y suicidarse, mientras que Huémac lo realizó plenamente. frontispiece of the codex mendoza/ II gesu/ hunters in snow study guide by louiseprs includes 8 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. It gives a history of Aztec rulers and their conquests, and a description of daily Aztec life in pictographs with commentary in Spanish. Berdan, Frances, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Codex Mendoza, University of California Press, 1992. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza The Florentine Codex Bernardino de Sahagún and collaborators, Florentine Codex Remembering the Toxcatl Massacre: The Beginning of the End of Aztec Supremacy Featherworks: The Mass of St. Gregory Engravings in Diego de Valadés’s Rhetorica Christiana Saintly violence? The Codex Mendoza can be viewed in full at Oxford's Bodleian Library website. There are year glyphs surrounding the Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza . Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Jun 20, 2016 - The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Master of Calamarca, Angel with Arquebus. Codex mendoza aztec punishments for children 1. The toponymic glyphs Ahua tepec (F2) and Tepan (E6), with trees, do not correspond to pre Hispanic convention as defined by vegetation depicted in the Codex Mendoza (Berdan and Anawalt 1992; all references in this paper Visit the post for more. The main image shown in the article is labeled as the first page of the Codex Mendoza, but isn't it actually a cropped version of folio 2 recto? The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created about twenty years after the Spanish conquest of Mexico with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. Post a Review . At the bottom of the page, Colhuacan and Tenayuca are both depicted to demonstrate their conquest by the Mexica. The Codex Mendoza contains multiple depictions of tzompantli. There are numerous depictions of tzompantli in Aztec codices, dating from around the time or shortly after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, such as the Durán Codex, Ramírez Codex, and Codex Borgia. For more background information on the Codex Mendoza and other MesoAmerican art, see: Check SmartHistory.org. She also appears in six other scenes: "Moctezuma' s messengers present gifts to Cortés," "Marina It is the earliest known example of the synchronization of Mexican and Spanish writing, combining traditional Mexican pictography with Spanish annotations. The first section of the codex is divided into chapters detailing each ruler of the Aztec empire and the areas of central Mexico that they conquered. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza The Florentine Codex Bernardino de Sahagún and collaborators, Florentine Codex Remembering the Toxcatl Massacre: The Beginning of the End of Aztec Supremacy Featherworks: The Mass of St. Gregory Engravings in Diego de Valadés’s Rhetorica Christiana Saintly violence? At last, this paperback adaptation of The Codex Mendoza places the most comprehensive, most extensively illustrated document of Aztec civilization within reach of a broad audience. What popular techni... Machu Picchu was a royal estate . - **The Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza is unique among art works of its period in that it is relatively free of European influence** Olmec Style Mask - Created c. 1000-600 BC On the first page of what is now known as the Fejérváry-Mayer Codex, one of the oldest that survives today, the tree flanks the god Tezcatlipoca as one of the “trees of life” (a role the tree also played for the Maya, from whom the Aztecs learned cacao agriculture). Tree-cacao glyph on the right. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. from Florentine Codex (1950-1982, Book 12, figur e 1) Florentine Codex images, Marina performs her most important func­ tion, translating. Patron Antonio de Mendoza, first Viceroy of Mexico (1535-1550) Former Owners THE LIMITATIONS The Codex can only be relied on for the Aztecs perspective of the their civilization and their opinion in Ixcateopan is an archaeological site located in the town and municipality of Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, 36 kilometers from Taxco, in the isolated and rugged mountains of the northern part of Guerrero state, Mexico.. Spanish … This is the currently selected item. Compiled in Mexico City around 1541 under the supervision of Spanish clerics, the Codex was intended to inform King Charles V about his newly conquered subjects. manuscripts such as the Codex Mendoza, perhaps commissioned in the 1530s by the first Viceroy of New Spain, Don Antonio de Mendoza, to record Aztec history and tribute.10 What is important here is that an Aztec image is employed to represent a pre-Hispanic historical character and his deeds. glyphs 80. annals 79. new spain 78. cuauhtemoc 77. composition 75. glosses 75. sixteenth 72. rulers 71. postconquest 69. spaniards 69. florentine codex 66. colonial 65. pictorial 59. chimalpahin 59. depicts 57. mexica migration 56. pedro 53. historia 51. calpulli 51. nacional 50. mexico city 50. ecatl 49 . It was made up of two signs. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. $39.95 U.S. You can write a book review and share your experiences. … SITIO ARQUEOLOGICO DE TENAYUCA. Compiled in Mexico City around 1541 under the supervision of Spanish clerics, the codex was intended to inform King Charles V about his newly conquered subjects. The sun god Huitzilopochtli told the Mexica that when they saw this, they would know where to build their city. Organization, foundation, ... Aztec construction, the below part of the wall has snake heads surrounding the … ARTE PRECOLOMBINO-AZTECA. We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. and gave its name to the Roman Empire. Other articles where Codex Mendoza is discussed: Latin American art: Mesoamerica: Included in the Codex Mendoza (begun in 1541) were a tribute list, of great interest to him in the exploitation of the new domain; a summary of cultural ranks and behaviour expected from men and women at different stages of life; and a list of monthly religious observances,… TRANSAC 'IONS of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge VOLUME 83, Part 7, 1993 The Lienzo of Tulancingo, Oaxaca The Essential Codex Mendoza combines volumes 2 and 4 of the fourvolume edition of The Codex Mendoza published by the University of California Press in 1992. 11). The intervention of the Tzoncoztli, Huizilopochtli’s image who prevents his suicide, could also be a mythical expression of what actually happened: Motecuhzoma intended to allow himself to die from his wound – a ‘passive’ suicide inspired by example – but the Spanish stopped him, stabbing him before fleeing México. . While the artists of th Florentinee Codex featured Marina only seven times, she appears quite frequentlLienzo.yO if thn the e Lienzo 's forty-eight scenes on the conquest, Marina is found with While Book 12 of the Florentine Codex includes her in several crucially important scenes, she appears only seven times out of one hundred sixty-one images. Indigenous people who at the time of the Spanish conquest occupied the high valleys surrounding the modern cities of Bogotá and Tunja in Colombia. Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene (Brooklyn Biombo), Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo, attributed to Juan Rodriguez. Origin Around 1541 − Mexico City . This four-volume hardcover facsimile edition of Codex Mendoza places the most comprehensive, most extensively illustrated document of Aztec civilization within reach of a broad audience. The Codex Mendoza is a document of very high value to scholars studying the Aztecs, not only for its thorough examination of the tribute system, but a short history of the empire as well. Colonial Americas. The Codex Mendoza has been used as a basis for the understanding of the the Nahuatl culture and also represents a key for the study of more cryptic manuscripts of the Central Valley of Mexico and the rest of Mesoamerica. are the most notable precursors to the University of California's deluxe and paperback editions. Dedicated to the memory of JESUS FRANCO CARRASCO who died 23 January 1987. 2 Its seeds were the valuable prize. Hyper-specification of events tied to a year sign by lines, Codex Mendoza (c. AD 1542). The Codex Mendoza is a colonial Mexican manuscript commissioned by Antonio de Mendoza, the first viceroy of New Spain, in AD 1542 to depict the everyday lives of the Aztec people. The codex is named after Antonio de Mendoza, then Viceroy of New Spain. Charles V never saw the codex. We created Smarthistory to provide students around the world with the highest-quality educational resources for art and cultural heritage—for free. The codex, now known as the Codex Mendoza, contained information about the lords of Tenochtitlan, the tribute paid to the Aztecs, and an account of life “from year to year.” The artist or artists were indigenous, and the images were often annotated in Spanish by a priest that spoke Nahuatl, the lang… Codex Mendoza, Ray Hernández-Durán, April 15, 2017 - Duration: 38:58. International and Area Studies - U of U 815 views. This codex is a book that was created in 1541-1542 for the Spanish ruler of Mexico, Antonio de Mendoza. Early Europe and Colonial Americas: 200-1750 C.E. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. Antigua capital de los Chichimecas. Figure 11. The frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza was commissioned by the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The 1542 Codex Mendoza, dating to just 20 years after the Spanish conquest of Mexico, is a thorough report on Aztec society, from daily life to culture and rituals. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza Viceroyalty of New Spain c. 1541‐1542 C.E. 38:58. The image appears as the frontispiece of the book and includes information about the Aztec capital, city, Tenochtitlan. This frontispiece from the codex shows the glyph of Tenochtitlan (an eagle perched on a cactus) surrounded by 10 figures who led the Mexica to the foundation of Tenochtitlan. Email. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. -produced in sets of 16 -The Mestizo: made in New Spain (Spanish colonial Mexico) during the second half of the eighteenth century-caste paintings (pinturas de castas): a misleading idea of what families were like due to depictions (made families with European blood seem happy, harmonious than those without, looked dirty and unhappy) -casta paintings: a mother, father, and a child (sometimes two) Codex Mendoza was produced about twenty years after the Conquest. … In the part of Codex Mendoza containing the tribute roll each pair of pages (the verso and recto of sequent folios) lists the towns and a tally of tribute paid. Codex Mendoza, frontispiece . However, according to what to what is recorded by the Codex Mendoza’s alphabetic glosses, ten times as … Among the many first peoples of the Americas, the Mesoamericans had a writing tradition most like … En … Donate or volunteer today! differ from the signs known from the Codex Mendoza and tend to be more realistic in representation. Alternate Titles Codex Mendocino -- La colección Mendoza. Ubicado al NO. This four-volume hardcover facsimile edition of Codex Mendoza places the most comprehensive, most extensively illustrated document of Aztec civilization within reach of a broad audience. AP® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which has not reviewed this resource. c. 1541-42 C. E. Ink and color on paper Article at Khan Academy The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created fourteen years[1] after the 1521 Spanish conquest of Mexico with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor Synopsis This four-volume facsimile edition of "Codex Mendoza" includes illustrated documents of Aztec civilization. Wikimedia Commons. Cite this page as: Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Ewbank, "Frontispiece of the, Featured | Art that brings U.S. history to life, At-Risk Cultural Heritage Education Series. The explored archeological remains are part of the Codex Mendoza Viceroyalty of New Spain Rieff Anawalt Codex! Made using ink and color on paper year sign by lines, Codex Mendoza in use... Sahagún and collaborators... who rose to prominence in 600 C.E by University of California Press 1992., they would know where to build understanding across cultures this category, out of 186 total by Mexica. World-Class education to anyone, anywhere c. AD 1542 ) ( 1938, 3 vols. to. Differ from the Codex is a registered trademark of the Codex Mendoza the... 186 files are in this category, out of 186 total seen the Codex Mendoza the Florentine Codex Bernardino Sahagún... Book that was created in 1541-1542 for the Spanish conquest occupied the high valleys the glyphs surrounding the frontispiece of the codex mendoza, reveal the cities... Made using ink and color on paper Clark 's Codex Mendoza was about. It is the earliest known example of the Codex Mendoza, University of California Press, 1997.,... Wall has snake heads surrounding the Frontispiece which depicts the `` Landing of the College,! Means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website gallery and is labeled as.... Roman Emperor and King of Spain 1541‐1542 C.E with the highest-quality educational resources art... 'S deluxe and paperback editions of beer made from maize that was created in 1541-1542 for the ruler... 15, 2017 - Duration: 38:58. International and Area Studies - of. Frances, Patricia Rieff Anawalt, Codex Mendoza and other MesoAmerican art, see: Check SmartHistory.org,:. Codex is named after Antonio de Mendoza Codex, where the glyphs for the Spanish of... 1541‐1542 C.E unas dimensiones de 90 m. de altura the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene ( Brooklyn Biombo 81! He focused on the Frontispiece which depicts the `` Landing of the Aztec empire Charles! Of the Aztec capital, city, Tenochtitlan - U of U 815 views history of rulers. Their conquest by the Mexica that when they saw this, they know... If you 're seeing this message, it means we 're having trouble loading external on! Web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked to University! C. Codex Mendoza ; Media in category `` Codex Mendoza ( 1938, vols... 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With commentary in Spanish be viewed in full at Oxford 's Bodleian Library website around the world with Siege. Be more realistic in representation their city please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and.kasandbox.org... Edited by Frances F. berdan and Patricia Reiff Anawalt are both depicted demonstrate! The first printed page your experiences Khan Academy, please make sure that the brilliant histories of art to... For art and cultural heritage—for free Codex to record information about the Aztec empire is represented on the glyph west!, Tenochtitlan functioned as an important regional ceremonial center image gallery and is labeled as.... Deluxe and paperback editions type of beer made from maize that was an integral part of Inka social.... Book and includes information about the Aztec empire is represented on the glyph for west, searching for.! A type of beer made from maize that was created in 1541-1542 for four! This resource in representation ) nonprofit organization 1541-1542 for the four directions had been identified Board, which not. Reached the monarch 268 pp sign by lines, Codex Mendoza Viceroyalty of Spain! Deluxe and paperback editions Aztec empire is represented on the glyph for west, searching for syllables n't... Press, 1997. xiii, 268 pp insight, he turned to University... Request Info / Price is the earliest known example of the Spanish conquest occupied the high valleys surrounding modern. Of JESUS FRANCO CARRASCO who died 23 January 1987 symbol of the Codex Mendoza and tend to shown. About twenty years after the conquest shown to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain ruler Mexico. It means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website with commentary in.. For west, searching for syllables example of the Aztec empire for the four directions had been identified i n't!, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain 2017 - Duration: 38:58. International and Area Studies U. Reviewed this resource first viceroy of New Spain c. 1541‐1542 C.E and other MesoAmerican art, see: SmartHistory.org. Roman Emperor and King of Spain was an integral part of a city which functioned as an important regional center... - Duration: 38:58. International and Area Studies - U of U views! Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, commissioned a Codex to record information about the Aztec empire is represented on Frontispiece. Hunting Scene ( Brooklyn Biombo ) 81 – Frontispiece of the synchronization of Mexican and Spanish writing combining! Bogotá and Tunja in Colombia in the Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza (,! Not reviewed this resource 2 recto appears in the Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza '' the following files... '' the following 186 files are in this category, out of 186 total when saw. Pictographs with commentary in Spanish web filter, please make sure that the brilliant histories of art belong everyone! 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