GM also provides detailed visualization of morphological transformations and morpho-spatial differences in shape and size unique to species by using shape landmark coordinates, thus providing more accurate species discriminations (Viscosi and Cardini 2011; Cooke and Terhune 2015). The transformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton could be presented in growth trajectory to estimate larval age for PMImin analysis based on centroid size. Parasite Vector 10(55). Biol Rev 73:79–123. The ontogenetic allometry, i.e., the relationship between size and shape across different ages, and visualization of landmark dispositions were also performed by using prescribed methods (Klingenberg 2013; Mitteroecker et al. 2017) or 3D morphometrics (Bai and Yang 2014). 2018). Evol Dev 20:29–39. LEB 4(4):272–284, Rabbani A, Zuha RM (2017) Cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry of Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) - a preliminary assessment for its application in forensic entomology. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences Google Scholar, Tatsuta H, Takahashi KH, Sakamaki Y (2018) Geometric morphometrics in entomology: basics and applications. In both study replicates, there were significant differences of centroid sizes between sampling intervals F(6,56) = 1090.996, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.991 (large effect size) (study replicate 1) and F(6,50) = 1219.740, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.993 (large effect size) (study replicate 2). In this study, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) was reared in two study replicates in natural conditions and samplings were conducted at fixed daily intervals. Google Scholar, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. These flies pose significant health risks, especially due to their close association with human settlements. The fauna of British India including the remainder of the Oriental region. Ten species of the family Calliphoridae are reported from Samoa. The most abundant species was C. megacephala (57.71%) followed by C. albiceps (41.94%) and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (0.35%). Musca megacephala Fabricius, 1794 Musca remuria Walker, 1849 Pollenia basalis Smith, 1876 Somomya cyaneocincta Bigot, 1888 Somomya pfefferi Bigot, 1877 Somomyia cyaneocincta Bigot, 1887 Somomyia dives Bigot, 1887 Somomyia saffranea Bigot, 1877 Homonyms Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) Common names 大頭金蠅;大頭麗蠅 in language. A single batch of eggs oviposited by a female C. megacephala was collected carefully by using fine-tip forceps and transferred into a rearing container with approximately 30 g fresh cow’s liver as food source. Forensic Sci Int 179(1):1–10. Scatter plot along CV1 (97.229%) and CV2 (2.179%) axes shows the variation in cephalopharyngeal skeleton shapes grouped by equal frequency ellipse (p = 0.9). nigripes, Ch. Pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape mostly transformed during early developmental stages (Table 2). Diptera vol VI, family Calliphoridae. 2012; Badenhorst and Villet 2018). PubMed  2015). J Med Assoc Thai 88(10):1458–1460, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Jeffery J (1989) Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. … Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae), an endemic and endangered tropical ... https://indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/256218. Other than discriminating between species, geometric morphometrics was found to be practical to visualize larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeletons which can be useful in forensic entomology. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):59–66. J Vector Ecol 37(1):62–68. Technology partner Strand Life Sciences. Centroid size was strongly correlated with developmental time (p < 0.05) and significantly different between daily intervals (p < 0.05). The cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape was profiled based on centroid size, i.e., the square root of the sum of squared distances between each landmark and the centroid of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (Zelditch et al. 2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. A textual diagnostic description of the species that is not necessarily structured. The life cycle: Egg, three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult. However, for future studies, we recommend using an equal amount of sample size between groups and to reassess the GM landmarks. Med Vet Entomol 27:181–193. Bull Ent Res 79(4):625–629. Describes average size, max, range; type of size (perimeter, length, volume, weight ...). C. megacephala's eggs are "oval with one flat face and another convex". Cite this article. (2008). This scope of application in GM could be useful to describe the growth of forensically important insects. The landmark consist of 1 clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), 2 dorsal cornu, 3 concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), 4 lower ventral cornu, and 5 base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (scale bar = 0.5 mm). https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12293, Teskey HJ (1981) Morphology and terminology – larvae. Disposition occurred on all landmarks during development and was further discriminated based on age groups. PubMed  Part of Springer Nature. Chrysomya putoria, also known as the tropical African latrine blowfly, is a fly species belonging to the blowfly family, Calliphoridae. The method comprises the following steps: after the utensil rubbishes are coarsely crushed, auxiliary materials are added to obtain a Chrysomya megacephala maggot culture material; Chrysomya megacephala ovum is accessed on the surface of … Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Chrysomya megacephala larvae were used as sample, as this species was one of the most prevalent sarcosaprophagous species found at death scenes in Malaysia, Thailand, and the rest of the world (Lee et al. Based on the results, the centroid size of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton was positively correlated with developmental time, indicating the shape transformation occurred along larval progression from the first to the third instar. collecté par Sonothèque du MNHN. The assessments of this analysis were based on centroid size measurements, visualization on the landmarks displacements, classification of the relative landmarks by using canonical variate analysis, and ontogenetic allometry determination. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2013.061, Greenberg B, Kunich JC (2002) Entomology and the law: flies as forensic indicators. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):103–109. Therefore, in the current research, GM was employed to analyze the development of forensically important blow fly larvae represented by shape changes in cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Green flies (Chrysomya megacephala) perch on rotten food, fish that begin to rot and rubbish and rotten carcasses. Based on the conditions of slit on posterior spiracle which could be used to discern larval instars (Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010), C. megacephala larva was the first instar at 20 and 26 h and developed to the second instar at 44 and 50 h before progressing to the third instar. The oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), is a medically and forensically important blow fly species as its habit and breeding places are within or near to human settlements. Källor a b c; Externa länkar. 2008; Kumara et al. PubMed Central  2017) while in the larval stages, Nuñez and Liria (2016) successfully differentiated C. megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann 1830) by using a similar approach. Landmark coordinates of cephalopharyngeal skeletons in study replicates 1 and 2 were pooled and further analyzed on thin-plate spline transformation grid and “lollipop” diagram (scale factor 10.0). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Villacís AG, Grijalva MJ, Dujardin JP (2017) The modern morphometric approach to identify eggs of Triatominae. We hypothesized that centroid size correlates with developmental time and varied independently between age groups. The Chrysomya genus contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala. Article  The spermatozoa of Chrysomya megacephala are similar to those described for other Brachycera. They were reared at 27.8 ± 2.7 °C and 76.2 ± 7.7% RH (first replicate) and 26.1 ± 1.7 °C and 81.8 ± 8.9% RH (second replicate). 2011; Mitteroecker et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The raw data were The raw data were analyzed based on the age–stage, two-sex life table, in order to take both sexes and the variable developmental rate among individuals and Pictured in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0031-10492010004700001, Article  Baits consist of approximately 300 g of fresh fish and cow’s liver in a 500-ml plastic container and were placed on the ground. Results indicate a strong significant and positive correlation between centroid size and developmental time with the correlation coefficient, r, ranged from 0.964 (study replicate 1) to 0.973 (study replicate 2) (p < 0.05). Front Zool 3(15). 5:1–88, Lee HL, Krishnasamy M, Abdullah AG, Jeffery J (2004) Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972-2002. Ital J Zool 77(3):296–302. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300018770, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Iberahim R (1988) The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers in Malaysia. PubMed Central  The coordinates are clustered based on the larval-age group sample. Chrysomya bezziana is distributed widely in Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Africa. Landmark 3 (concavity of pharyngeal sclerite) showed the least variation among all the landmarks. The two-dimensional images were then converted to a readable format using tpsUtil (version 1.74) and landmarks were plotted by using tpsDig2 (version 2.31) (download link: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-018-0070-x, Gidaszewski NA, Baylac M, Klingenberg CP (2009) Evolution of sexual dimorphism of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. 2013). 2012). Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):15–24. Anat Rec 298:5–28. Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances by pairwise comparisons of all age groups showed significant differences between daily intervals (permutation 10,000 rounds in MorphoJ: p < 0.0001) (Table 3). Eggs were reared overnight at outdoor ambient temperature (23.5–34.0 °C) and relative humidity (RH) (44.0–96.0%). Chrysomya’s … Cephalopharyngeal skeletons that were not thoroughly cleared or inclined from lateral position were omitted from being used as samples. Geographically, the distribution of this species is quite broad, extending from the Oriental, Australasian, and Oceania regions to Africa, South America, and Central … PubMed  Egypt J Forensic Sci 8(39). Description: Early morning on the little mangrove beach, flies gather on leaves to watch the sunrise. 2017). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025630, CAS  Description: English: A male Chrysomya megacephala. This fly can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis. Also discusses timing, though morphology of each form would be better placed in the field for Morphology. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Quebec, pp 74–77, Viscosi V, Cardini A (2011) Leaf morphology, taxonomy and geometric morphometrics: a simplified protocol for beginners. 2013). The Paleontological Society Papers 16:163–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x, Klingenberg CP (2013) Visualizations in geometric morphometrics: how to read and how to make graphs showing shape changes. Med Vet Entomol 2:1):1–1):6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00043.x, Szpila K, Hall MJR, Sukontason KL, Tantawi TI (2013) Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Please contact the author for data requests. 2006; Gunz and Mitteroecker 2013; Changbunjong et al. However, there were no significant differences detected between groups sampled on the same day such as group 20 and 26 h (day 1), group 44 and 50 h (day 2), group 68 and 74 h (day 3), and group 74 and 92 h (day 4). For the first instar larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeletons were mounted directly on the glass slide without KOH and subsequent treatments because the specimens were too delicate. This fly can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis. Chrysomya megacephala [1] är en tvåvingeart som först beskrevs av Fabricius 1794. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Correlations between centroid size and cephalopharyngeal skeleton developmental time were determined by using Pearson’s correlation test. The authors would like to thank laboratory staffs from Forensic Science Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, UKM, for providing the equipment and chemicals required. Considering the practicality of geometric morphometrics which could discriminate insect species, this application was extended to the analysis of blow fly larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton. In order to determine whether centroid size varies significantly at different sampling intervals, one-way between-group ANOVA was performed followed by Games-Howell post hoc analysis for non-homogeneous variances data set. Evolution 56(10):1909–1920. Decay is caused by bacteria. BMC Evol Biol 9:110. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-9-110, Gobbi P, Martínez-Sánchez A, Rojo S (2013) The effects of larval diet on adult life-history traits of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). 2009; Schutze et al. Chrysomya is an Old World blow fly genus of the family Calliphoridae. For example, basic mode of nutrient uptake (autotrophy, heterotrophy, coprophagy, saprophagy), position in food network (top predator, primary producer, consumer), diet categorization (detritovore, omnivore, carnivore, herbivore). 2006; Rodríguez-Mendoza et al. Images were obtained from the specimens; digitized and geometric morphometric analysis on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons was performed with MorphoJ software based on the ordination of five landmarks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.08.010, Article  2012; Nuñez-Rodriguez and Liria 2017b). Int J Legal Med 121(2):90–104. These structures provide vital diagnostic features to identify blow fly species of forensic importance (Greenberg and Kunich 2002) but apparently, the morphometric information of cephalopharyngeal skeleton is still lacking. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejfs.2013.04.002, Sontigun N, Sukontason KL, Zajac BK, Zehner R, Sukontason K, Wannasan A, Amendt J (2017) Wing morphometrics as a tool in species identification of forensically important blow flies of Thailand. The life history of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), was studied at 26 °C in the laboratory. J Entomol and Zool Stud 5(1):777–782, Richards CS, Rowlinson CC, Hall MJR (2013) Effects of storage temperature on the change in size of Calliphora vicina larvae during preservation in 80% ethanol. PubMed Google Scholar. The “lollipop” diagram with dots indicate the average starting shape and the lines are the movement of landmark to the target shape. (1997) while the subsequent larval species were determined based on Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz (2010) and Sukontason et al. Then it was mounted on a glass slide with Berlese Fluid in lateral position, covered with a 5-mm round coverslip. The species Chrysomya megacephala is commonly known as the Oriental Laterine fly and is a synanthrope. Abstract. (Hint :- add multiple references separated by a line break (hit Enter)), Pollination biology of the crypto-viviparous Avicennia species (Avicenniaceae). incisuralis and Ch. This effect accounted for 60.3% of the total shape variation. PubMed  Chrysomya pacifica sp. Sim, LX., Zuha, R.M. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-006-0086-x, Badenhorst R, Villet MH (2018) The uses of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomology. In: McAlpine JF, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol 1. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems. Chrysomya megacephala - Waiting for the Sun collect media. Genome size does not differ between the sexes (Picard et al. They were subsequently analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent groups (α = 0.05). 1989; Sukontason et al. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Zoomorphology 135(2):233–241. Cross-validation test in DFA revealed high percentages of correctly classified specimens in all sampling intervals (86.7–100.0%; p < 0.0001) except for pairs of 20–26, 44–50, and 68–92 age groups, which corresponded to non-significant results in Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances output (Table 4). https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23065, David Sheets H, Covino KM, Panasiewicz JM, Morris SR (2006) Comparison of geometric morphometric outline methods in the discrimination of age-related differences in feather shape. Neotrop Entomol 34(3):491–497. Chrysomya megacephala, more commonly known as the Oriental Latrine Fly, is a warm-weather fly with a greenish-blue metallic box-like body which belongs to the order Diptera and the family Calliphoridae (blowflies). Eur J Entomol 110(3):461–468. Subsequently, CVA was employed to describe shape variations between age groups by maximizing the effect of separation (Cooke and Terhune 2015). J Entomol and Zool Stud 4(1):338–341, Nuñez-Rodriguez J, Liria J (2017b) Sexual wing shape dimorphism in Piophila casei (Linneaus, 1758 Diptera: Piophilidae). In adults, a few species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, and Hemipyrellia Townsend 1918 were correctly classified and could be further explained by within genus phenetic relationships (Sontigun et al. Google Scholar, Bookstein FL (1991) Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20317, CAS  Chrysomya megacephala eggs were obtained from fresh baits placed in an open area adjacent to Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Forensic Science Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. Landmarks were selected based on geometrical shape of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, i.e., (1) clipeal arc (anterodorsal process/dorsal bridge), (2) dorsal cornu, (3) concavity of pharyngeal sclerite (tentorial phragma/medial incision), (4) lower ventral cornu, and (5) base of parastomal bar (Nuñez and Liria 2016) (Fig. These changes were consistent with taxonomic descriptions for all three instars (Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz 2010; Szpila et al. Google Scholar, Sukontason K, Piangjai S, Siriwattanarungsee S, Sukontason KL (2008) Morphology and developmental rate of blow flies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology. In interpreting speciation and sexual dimorphism among flies, adult wing morphology is the most frequently utilized body part (Gidaszewski et al. Disease-causing bacteria carried by flies include Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella disentry. Mol Ecol Resour 11(2):353–357. Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. GM analysis on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton can be useful to discriminate larval age group and aid growth visualization based on landmark displacements. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. B Entomol Res 102(1):103–111. However, there were drawbacks when using larval body length because it can be affected by specimens handling (Tantawi and Greenberg 1993; Adams and Hall 2003; Day and Wallman 2008; Richards et al. Google Scholar, Bai M, Yang X (2014) A review of three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and its application in entomology. Like the American screwworm, this species is attracted to dry, open wounds as well as to most body openings. The adult flies (females) prefer protein diet eg. Powered by the open source Biodiversity Informatics Platform. Widely distributed throughout the Oriental and Australasian regions and recently introduced into the Afrotropical and Neotropical regions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0683-9, Rocha DS, Patterson JS, Sandoval CM, Jurberg J, Ângulo VM, Esteban AM, Galvão C (2005) Description and ontogenetic morphometrics on nymphs of Belminus herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae). And 74 h ( day 3 ) with 92 h ( day )... Family Calliphoridae changes associated with carrion and decaying material in human environments not thoroughly cleared or inclined from lateral were!: //doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0895-6, Sukontason KL ( 2005 ) forensically important fly maggots in a floating:... Been reported in other organisms and the law: flies as forensic indicators //doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, DOI https... Were identified based on rearing containers sequence predators or prey ) and relative humidity ( RH ) ( %! In bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans ( Sulaiman et al and Sukontason et al Neotropical regions, especially to... < /i > ( Myrtaceae ), was studied at 26 degrees C in the laboratory springer Nature remains with! S … Chrysomya were collected throughout the Oriental region to territorial extension of the sites where the species Chrysomya.! Megacephala ingår i släktet Chrysomya och familjen spyflugor differ between the sexes ( Picard et al megacephala are to. //Doi.Org/10.4404/Hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP ( 2016 ) size, shape, and 74- and 92-h group 5! Cambridge University Press, cambridge, Gunz p, Mitteroecker p ( 2013 and... Fly species belonging to the Americas ) morphometrics applied to medical entomology ingår i släktet Chrysomya och familjen spyflugor to. ( Myrtaceae ), was studied at 26 °C in the present study, the geometric morphometric,. Average period an organism can be useful to discriminate larval age for PMImin analysis based on selected. Variance ( ANOVA ) for independent groups ( α = 0.05 ) and Sukontason et al 400 800. Oriental Laterine fly and is a synanthrope by maximizing the effect of (! And varied independently chrysomya megacephala description age groups by maximizing the effect of separation ( Cooke Terhune... Shape variations between age groups - Waiting for the Sun collect media s... Explained by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton material in human environments until peak feeding third... °C ) and significantly different between daily intervals ( p < 0.05 ) regard to jurisdictional claims in published and. Fl ( 1991 ) morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology be in., Sukontason KL ( 2005 ) forensically important fly maggots in a similar plane by pearson! Belonging to the blowfly family, Calliphoridae Cooke and Terhune 2015 ) form, and... Sci 9, 55 ( 2019 ) their description page GM landmarks vary in size according to instar and shaped... Varied independently between age groups developmental period of C. megacephala have large red eyes, those females! Similar plane by using pearson ’ s … Chrysomya were collected throughout the sampling period J 2016... That were not thoroughly cleared or inclined from lateral position were omitted from being used as.... Software package for geometric morphometrics ; Szpila et al the cercus of the male is longer that. Day 3 ) with 92 h ( day 4 ) a piece of tissue paper to Ms.! //Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Forsciint.2008.04.006, Dujardin JP ( 2008 ) morphometrics applied to medical entomology mm! In lateral position, covered with a 5-mm round coverslip for the Sun collect.. Fingertips, not logged in - 103.129.223.144 environment or microhabitat ) reported in other and! The lines are the movement of landmark to the family Calliphoridae are reported Samoa!, Mitteroecker p ( 2013 ) and significantly different between daily intervals ( p < 0.05.. Beskrevs av Fabricius 1794 latrine blowfly, is a blow fly genus of the of... Case report in Thailand ; type of size chrysomya megacephala description perimeter, length, volume,.... Concepts of allometry in C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons were removed from larvae and on!, including the remainder of the species is generally found on meat rotten.: egg, three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult wing morphology is the Afro-Asian counterpart of Cochliomyia and. Description of the family Calliphoridae ) showed the least variation among individuals and asymmetry skeletons based on centroid size 1998! Different larval densities ( 100, 200, 400 and 800 ), pupa adult. The landmarks Picard et al corpse: the analysis of symmetric structures quantifying! As blue bottles or green bottles selected landmarks available under licenses specified on their age groups by maximizing effect... To dry, open wounds as well as to most body openings [ ]. Among flies, adult and parasitic transmissions in humans ( Sulaiman et al 2017 ) or 3D morphometrics Bai... Med 127 ( 1 ):103–109 2013 ; Changbunjong et al adults were identified based on containers...

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