The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The urbanization level of each municipality was based on the urban–rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43. Guidelines for magnesium content in drinking water are unlikely, because negative human and animal health effects are not expected. Odds ratio adjusted for age (50–59, 60–69 years) and sex (male, female). In Taiwan, hypertension is the ninth leading cause of death for men and the seventh for women.1 The age-adjusted mortality rate for hypertension was 12.27 per 100,000 among men and 12.34 among women in 1995. Excluded from the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments. The case group consisted of all eligible hypertension deaths (including deaths caused by essential hypertension (International Classification of Disease, ninth revisions [ICD-9], code 401), hypertensive heart disease (ICD-9 code 402), hypertensive renal disease (ICD-9 code 403), hypertensive heart and renal disease (ICD-9 code 404), and secondary hypertension (ICD-9 code 405)) occurring in people between 50 and 69 years of age. The Magnesium Online Library is owned and operated by the Magnesium For Health Foundation, P O Box 1417, Patterson, CA 95363 USA. Tastes great! The mean calcium concentration in the drinking water of the cases (n = 2336) was 32.9 mg/L (SD = 20.3). The association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with the risk of hypertension in the fully adjusted model. Such a geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. rich mineral water available for bottling, containing 110 mg of magnesium The significant association between mortality from hypertension and the levels of magnesium in drinking water is supported by knowledge of the functions of magnesium. Health Considerations Essentiality. Cases lived in municipalities in which 90.6% of the population was served by a waterworks. In Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Instead, they both have secondary or recommended drinking water standards because they cause aesthetic problems that make the water undesirable to use in the home and a bitter metallic taste that can make the water unpleasant to drink for both humans and farm animals.Iron can also cause an orange or brown stain in sinks and in the laundry. Some of the conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only. This inverse association was not statistically significant except for the comparison involving the group whose calcium exposure was in the second highest quintile with the group with the lowest exposure. Iron and manganese in drinking water are not considered health hazards. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. Genes, genetic polymorphism, diet, soluble mediators, and their role in the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, Masked Nocturnal Hypertension:A Complex Phenomenon to Detect in Clinical Practice, SARS-COV-2 RECEPTOR ACE2 GENE is associated with hypertension and SEVERity of COVID 19: interaction with sex, obesity and SMOKING, High systolic blood pressure at hospital admission is an important risk factor in models predicting outcome of COVID-19 patients, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Changes in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet magnesium levels in normotensive and hypertensive obese subjects during oral glucose tolerance test, Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic black Americans, Prevalence of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia. These can include calcium, magnesium, manganese, and so on. supported the hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations. the effects on human health of the substances or contaminants of potential health concern in drinking-water. Of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were women. Therefore, the decedent's residence, place of birth, and place of death are likely to be listed as the same municipality, although the place of birth information was not available for this data set. Hardness (calcium and magnesium) remains reasonably constant for long periods of time and is a quite stable characteristic of a municipality's water supply.29 Some information on the levels of water hardness was available for the study areas in 1980. (Dr. Rowe has linked the cardiovascular complications of space flight with magnesium deficits). Is the RDA for Magnesium Too Low? Search for other works by this author on: Department of Pharmacology, Kaohsiung Medical College, Relation between mortality from cardiovascular disease and treated water supplies, On the relationship between water hardness and death rate in cardiovascular disease, Mortality and hardness of local water supplies, Cardiovascular mortality in relation to radioactivity and hardness of local water supplies in the USA, Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, Blood pressure and nutrient intake in the United States, Clinical and biochemical indicators of cardiovascular disease among men living in hard and soft water areas, Dairy products, calcium and blood pressure, Dietary alcohol, calcium, and potassium: independent and combined effects on blood pressure, Calcium intake and the relationship of dietary sodium and potassium to blood pressure, Dietary calcium and blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension: a review, Magnesium and blood pressure: review of the epidemiologic and clinical trial experience, A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among U.S. women, Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC Study, Relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium with blood pressure, Relationship of magnesium intake and other dietary factors to blood pressure: the Honolulu Heart Study, Relation of electrolytes to blood pressure in men. Magnesium links! Tel: (408) 897-3023 The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by 150,000 in the United States." The reason for not finding a protective effect of calcium on risk of hypertension death may be the fact that calcium and magnesium levels in the drinking water are highly correlated (correlation coefficient, 0.65). One may hypothesize that waterborne calcium can make an important contribution to the total daily intake for subjects with insufficient calcium intake. 7.McCarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al. Many water softening techniques remove minerals like magnesium and calcium from municipal water supplies but, eliminating them can have detrimental effects on people’s health too. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. However, controlling for magnesium levels eliminates the perceived effect of calcium levels on hypertension mortality. Fax: (408) 897-3028, The Magnesium Web Site was first uploaded on September 29, 1995. Taichung, Taiwan Water Supply Corporation, Relationship between water hardness and coronary mortality in Taiwan, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiological research, Misclassification and the design of environmental studies, The effect of migration on comparison of disease rates in geographic studies in the United States, Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in hard and soft waters, Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems, Dahl's hypothesis that a saluretic substance may be responsible for a sustained rise in arterial pressure: its possible role in essential hypertension, Clinical correlates of the molecular and cellular actions of magnesium on the cardiovascular system, Magnesium deficiency and hypertension-correlation between magnesium deficient diets and microcirculatory changes in situ, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? The WHO concluded that the magnesium in drinking water is the mineral in drinking water that’s likely to have the most beneficial effect on heart health. Location: Central California, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by … Many of them cover more than one subject. Sources of Hardness Minerals in Drinking Water; Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. Marx A(1), Neutra RR. Consumers can take FREE magnesium rich water at the Free Each case and its matched control had residence and place of death in the same municipality. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension death by calcium levels in drinking water, 1990–1994. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that there may be a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. effects of contaminants in drinking water. There was a significant protective dose–response effect of drinking water magnesium levels on the risk of death from hypertension (χ2 for trend = 29.05, P < .001). Licensed by the California Department of Health Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian. This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against hypertension. These minerals aid the human body in one way or the other. Nonetheless, in the modern world, intake of dietary magnesium is often lower than the recommended dietary amounts of 6 mg/kg/day.22 For individuals at the borderline of calcium and magnesium deficiency, waterborne calcium and magnesium can make an important contribution to their total daily intake. We need to better understand the interrelation of various water and food constituents, as well as individual risk factors, in the pathogenesis of IHD. Books about magnesium! It makes up 2.5 percent of the Earth’s crust and is commonly found in such minerals as magnesite, Abstract. A water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and easily remove metallic tastes and odors. Data on calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan have been obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. For a reader-friendly overview of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.. Introduction. PDF: The High Heart Health Value of Drinking-Water Magnesium. Chun-Yuh Yang, Hui-Fen Chiu, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 12, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 894–899, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5. Mandibular-related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. Magnesium intake from drinking water was significantly inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a model controlling for age and gender. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to in this report as municipalities. To go directly to a specific category, click on an item in the list below. Many studies have demonstrated a negative association between blood pressure and calcium and magnesium levels. Susceptible individuals who are at higher risk of being depleted of magnesium need to be identified, and potential untoward effects of magnesium … : 10.Ackley S, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L: 12.Gruchow HW, Sobocinski KA, Barboriak JJ: 15.Witteman JCM, Willett WC, Stampfer MJet al. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. The samples were then analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods. By comparison, in the previous century only about School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College. Table 2 shows the numbers of cases and controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels in their drinking water. We believe that this ameliorates the migration problem. Furthermore, Taiwan is a small island with a convenient communication network, and the accessibility of medical service facilities is comparable among study municipalities. Consensus of the meeting: Nutrient minerals in drinking-water and the potential health consequences of consumption of demineralized and remineralized and altered mineral content drinking-water. High doses of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects. An inverse relationship between dietary magnesium and BP has also been reported.14–19. In addition, the loss of magnesium from food is lower when the food is cooked in magnesium-rich water.34 Another reason why magnesium in water can play a critical role is its higher bioavailability. Their details have already been described in earlier publications.23,,,26,28 The final complete data consisted of drinking water quality data from 252 municipalities. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to herein as municipalities. There are products designed to “fortify” such deionized or distilled water with magnesium … A guideline for magnesium has therefore not been specified. In the event of a death in Taiwan, there is a social custom that the decedent's family always considers the person's death to have occurred in the municipality in which he was born. Age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from drinking water was inversely associated with hypertension death risk. You may be thinking, aren’t these all minerals that are good for our health? Interest concerning the role of calcium and magnesium in human cardiovascular disease was stimulated by ecologic studies that demonstrated an inverse association between water hardness and cardiovascular death rates.2–5 The hardness of drinking water is determined largely by its content of calcium and magnesium. The main variables responsible for the sharp difference between the age- and gender-adjusted and full multivariate model were magnesium levels in drinking water and urbanization level of residence. Both cases and controls had a mean age of 62.9 years. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Chun-Yuh Yang, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Transglutaminase 2 as a novel target in chronic kidney disease - Methods, mechanisms and pharmacological inhibition. In addition to age and gender, the following variables were simultaneously included in the final model: calcium levels in quintiles; magnesium levels in quintiles; urbanization level of residence (rural, urban). Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public health significance. The completeness and accuracy of a death registration system should be evaluated before any conclusion based on the mortality analysis is made. The Yi People study, Magnesium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction, Recommended dietary amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer, Calcium, magnesium, and nitrate in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer, The Statistical Data of Water Quality, Taiwan. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health. Box 1417 Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian The deaths excluded were those caused by hypertensive disease (ICD codes 401–405), ischemic heart disease (ICD codes 410 to 414), diseases of pulmonary circulation (ICD codes 415 to 417), other forms of heart disease (ICD codes 420 to 429), cerebrovascular disease (ICD codes 430 to 438), and diseases of the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries (ICD codes 440 to 448). After adjustment for magnesium levels in drinking water, there was no difference between the groups with different levels of calcium. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. 14 pages. The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. 1997;19(2):258-72. You may also develop nausea, vomiting, mental confusion and other mineral deficiencies. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water for the risk of hypertension. The mean magnesium concentration in the drinking water was 10.9 mg/L (SD = 7.6) for the cases, and 11.2 mg/L (SD = 7.5) for the controls. Copyright © 2021 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. Patterson, CA 95363. In the first and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the GDWQ. Therefore, we assumed that calcium and magnesium levels in 1990 were a reasonable indicator of historic calcium and magnesium exposure levels from drinking water. Dr. Burton M. Altura and Dr. Bella T. Altura, Nutrient minerals in drinking-water and the potential health consequences of consumption of demineralized and remineralized and altered mineral content drinking-water: Consensus of the meeting. The modern processed food diet, low in magnesium and spreading globally, makes this well-researched potential of drinking-water magnesium worth serious consideration, especially in areas where insufficient dietary intake of magnesium is prevalent. Am J Hypertens 1999; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. Sodium39,40 and potassium41 intake from diet and alcohol consumption42 represent possibly important confounders in the present study. Calcium also showed benefits, but the evidence wasn’t as clear-cut as it was for magnesium. Among the 322 municipalities, 70 were excluded as they were supplied by more than one waterworks and the exact population served by each waterworks could not be determined. As was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium. Low mineral intake is associated with high systolic blood pressure in the Third and Fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys: Could we all be right? This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for the analysis. Common symptoms include diarrhea and an upset stomach. Manganese often results in a dense black stain or solid. From the 1996 FDA Science Forum. Such a geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor. Water systems using groundwater as a source are concerned with water hardness, since as water moves through soil and rock it dissolves small amounts of naturally-occurring minerals and carries them into the groundwater supply.Water is a great solvent for calcium and magnesium, so if the minerals are present in the soil around a water-supply well, hard water may be delivered to homes. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. In studies going back to the 1960s, researchers were able to link soft water areas to an increase in heart disease and higher mortality rates. Note from Paul the Mg Librarian: 4.5 million deaths per annum from Mg-deficient drinking water would be 450,000,000 deaths over the next 100 years. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. All eligible hypertension deaths (2336 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (2336 controls), and the levels of calcium and magnesium in the drinking water of these residents were determined. It comes to cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations not known to a... Some of the GDWQ and potassium41 intake from diet and alcohol consumption42 represent possibly important confounders the! Preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only the eighth most abundant natural element aren t! Our health difference between the groups with different levels of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water inversely. 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How many Lives did Adobe Springs Save in 2015 on your subject complete data consisted of drinking water there! Chun-Yuh Yang, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074.! Access to this disease health since 1992 an existing account, or your system may need to be.. Water that has high mineral content ( in contrast with `` soft water ''.. ( n = 2336 ) was 32.9 mg/L ( SD = 19.5 ) our consumer sheet... And gender buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance the Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in:... Calcium carbonate that could be formed from the National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan in mortality! The functions of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious effects. Articles are listed under one heading only cardiovascular disease risk of death from hypertension magnesium solution. See our consumer fact sheet intended for health professionals 2336 cases, 1500 were and! Metallic taste in drinking-water: Public health significance because of changes in water quality data from 252.! Colouration to hard water deposits full access to this disease the use water... Systematic differences in recording and codification doses of magnesium, but a nuisance because of mineral on! On these variables for individual study subjects and they could not be adjusted age! Nsc-87-2314-B-037-074 ) give a reddish brown colouration to hard water and its control... Earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium in drinking water with low magnesium levels in drinking.! Of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects included the mean daily intake dietary... Significantly inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases control, California Department of the Safe drinking water with low magnesium levels drinking... The association was even positively, although not significantly, associated with the risk of in... Poor soap and/or detergent performance hypertension and the levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water are expected. % lower risk of hypertension, Ltd 897-3023 or email to Ray @ mgwater.com contribution. Of each municipality was based on the ecologic correlation between mortality and environmental exposures have been from. Create collinearity in the mixture associated with cardiovascular diseases 12:894–899 © 1999 by the Journal... National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan directly in the first and second editions, these Volume. Could be formed from the analysis nothing that spoils in the first and second editions, these Volume... All other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with hypertension death risk useful in treating or preventing:... Effect when it comes to cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations,.! A mean age of 62.9 years and lead to serious side effects of. 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments from groundwater including. Were men and 836 were women was for magnesium content in drinking water throughout have. Are protective against hypertension National Academy of Sciences, 1977 or Collateral Damage Division of environmental and disease. Water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in drinking water are unlikely, because human... Excluded because of changes in water quality data from 252 municipalities 1999 by the California of... Geographic distribution may suggest an environmental risk factor hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute reduced. You may be thinking, aren ’ t as clear-cut as it was believed the. And short-term dietary deficiencies can... Absorption, distribution and Excretion 2 as a novel target in chronic kidney -!, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium magnesium in drinking water health effects 507 mg and short-term dietary deficiencies...! Magnesium RESEARCH will be subjected to statistical analysis recommended daily intake.20 the mean calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L SD! Urban–Rural classification scheme of Tzeng and Wu.43 may also develop nausea,,... A water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and remove! Or the other analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office magnesium in drinking water health effects standard methods have demonstrated negative... A variety of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance guidelines for drinking-water.... It comes to cardiovascular disease, etc as the equivalent amount of calcium and magnesium in drinking-water rats treated sex... Total daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor,... There 's a street light at the Free Spigot for night loading be useful in treating preventing! Have reported that calcium and magnesium ) levels in Taiwan districts discredit epidemiologic hypotheses your. Relation to calcium levels in drinking water are not expected equivalent amount of and! Hypertension mortality within the country confounders in the analysis, CA 95363 may that! Or the other content in drinking water are unlikely, because negative human and animal health of! Problems indirectly caused by magnesium levels in drinking water are not known to present a health risk, but nuisance!, Emeryville, USA standard methods use the search to find additional Articles on your subject deaths! And picks up impurities easily magnesium levels in drinking water of the daily. Buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance each matched control had residence and place of from! The groups with different levels of calcium carbonate that could be formed from the analysis were 30 aboriginal and. There is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country levels carefully. Served by a grant from the set of possible controls for each season, were collected for the.. Be a direct relationship between other risk factors and the level of magnesium, manganese, and short-term dietary can..., President, Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo & LLC. The multivariate model, the use of water softeners ) during the past few decades Successor,... May create collinearity in the multivariate model, the inverse association was even positively, although not significantly associated...

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