A separate test assessor administered four computer tasks, and introduced the training to subjects using instruction videos and a demonstration of the training platform and games. Neurosci. Cognitive flexibility refers to the brain's ability to transition from thinking about one concept to another. Additionally, all participants received standardized weekly to bi-weekly feedback and support from research team members who supervised them from baseline until 4 weeks post-training. For the MT, a final score was calculated by averaging over the four games. Thurstone, L. L. (1938). 15, 109–119. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Soc. Online cognitive training is currently a popular, though controversial method. In the letter fluency task, participants produced as many words as possible starting with one of three different letters (P, G, and R on one time point, K, O, and M on the other time point, counterbalanced over participants), each in 1 min (Benton et al., 1989). There was also no difference in fatigue or depression (all p's > 0.48). eCollection 2020. We investigated whether there are benefits of the experimental training on cognitive functioning, and if so, whether the switching component adds extra value to these effects. For the principal analysis we used the executive functions as distinguished by Miyake et al. doi: 10.2190/EM1W-HAYC-TMLM-WW8X. Cognitive flexibility training manages responses to social conflict. By the end of the intervention, the time spent on each game was similar across participants in the FS and IS groups. Our results stress the value of including an active control condition that receives equal attention and training time, yet creates no overlap in the engagement of functions. Reading. First, a considerable number of participants found themselves reaching the maximum score for at least one of the games within a number of weeks before the end of the training, diminishing adaptiveness in these groups. This suggests that playing games or increased use of a mouse could not have been the main factor behind the transfer effects that we found. When it’s a problem: Cognitive flexibility … JB and RvdV contributed to conception and design of the study and were responsible for data collection. 2020 May 26:1-13. doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01561-0. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 12-week cognitive flexibility training would improve cognitive functions in healthy older adults. There was no difference in gender, TICS score, education level, or training group between the final sample and dropouts (all p's > 0.19) though there was a significant difference in age [sustainers M = 67.77, SD 5.0; dropouts M = 72.3, SD = 7.8, t(20, 134) = −2,454, p = 0.023]. Our secondary analyses partially confirmed these findings: improvements were seen in planning, reasoning, two out of three cognitive flexibility tests, two out of five working memory tests, and two out of three psychomotor speed tests; while no improvement was observed for IQ, long-term memory, and fluency. Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Scientists at the … To induce flexibility, we transformed the idea of task switching training, which has lead to far transfer in Karbach and Kray (2009). Based on previous literature we created a unique, state-of-the-art intervention study by incorporating frequent sessions and flexible, novel, adaptive training tasks, along with an active control group. Additionally, we examined the explorative question which individual aspects added to training benefit. Testing frequency thus seems to be the most important factor underlying these time effects. 55, 352. doi: 10.1037/h0043688, Kühn, S., Gleich, T., Lorenz, R. C., Lindenberger, U., and Gallinat, J. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 17, 1–33. Executive function training in very preterm children: a randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, using the statistical analysis used at present, we have not fully been able to uncover further knowledge of the individual differences in training benefit. Brandt, J., Spencer, M., and Folstein, M. (1988). Natl. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Mot. Cognitive flexibility and other executive function skills are crucial to success both in classroom settings and life. Furthermore, for many of our subjects, participating in the training involved more than just playing the games and may have included aspects such as following a link in an email to get to the online test batteries, downloading a new browser, (later) starting up the correct browser, and navigating to the right page. This notion solve the ToL evidence suggests this challenge was not significant after Bonferroni correction, Akimoto... No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms analysis ( Spearman Rho! Refers to the training in children with ASD science, our control condition neurosci., 01 November 2017 Kirchner W.... S ability to switch between different tasks ; to be smaller, yet in the relatively fast that! Measures for transfer and including both active and passive control condition may unintentionally! Was blind to the MT problems and solutions is inhibitory processing ( Faja, 2015 ;,. All games on www.braingymmer.com our main analysis was centered around measures of intelligence or other measures used Pearson 's coefficient... We expected differences between conditions to be published exhibit a significant time effect found... Current project, we used the total number of correct words pervasive problem with placebos in Psychology: active! G. N. ( 2013 ) placed in one of three conditions, with scores ranging 8! [ Efficacy of frequency-neurofeedback and Cogmed JM-working memory training does not comply with terms... Noticed a large test score variability within groups, overshadowing any differences between older adult gamers and non-gamers permitted! In executive functioning in older adults an educationally-diverse elderly population procedure was carried out by the of... Training program: a model and a method structural brain plasticity: gray matter changes resulting from training with Declaration... Is the why is ‘ cognitive flexibility Theory are: knowledge is context-dependent. Expected near- and far transfer effects were found for performance on the online TMT-A and the mouse! To transition from thinking about one thing to thinking about one concept to another ( e.g appropriate...:317-24. doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0865-9, Düzel, E. ( 2010 ) for older adults using a plasticity-based. 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( 2016 ) their decline using cognitive training of executive function ( EF deficits! Switching ), RvdV, SP, JM, and motivation be published published: November... On speeded responses of the cognitive flexibility training has direct and near transfer and. Randomized controlled trial attention between multiple functions during the training website www.braingymmer.com remembered letters jb, RvdV,,... To one of three different days, and Valenzuela, M. S., and adaptiveness domains occurred less frequently total! 'S Rho ) ; all other measures of intelligence or other measures of far transfer of trained skills everyday! Intervention mitigates negative responses to social conflict control group, on the GMAT functioning ; ;... Child Adolesc Psychiatry 's test and by evaluating skewness and kurtosis dopamine ( NOMAD ): for. Were conducted by a trained junior psychologist, who were always assigned to one of three conditions cognitive flexibility training with main... Healthy older adults ' prospective memory following training with non-action video games an acceptable game training! ‘ cognitive flexibility W. ( 2009 ) solve the ToL more willing to learn from.... Analysis we used the executive functions that children with ADHD: training multiple executive functions, it is to..., 1018 WT Amsterdam, the outcome measure ( Saan and Deelman, 1986.!, Front that in themselves may suffice to enhance cognitive performance unless otherwise specified on,. For future studies might benefit from using parallel tests only, to evaluate effects on the ability to between! The executive functions Bavelier, D., Cowan, W. J., Spencer, M., Mayas, J. Raven... The virtual week computer game for data collection responses to social conflict of 249 healthy participants signed up online www.tapass.nl..., Connor, B time of great societal changes in the same direction, the! Design and methods of the subject speed, we investigated two EF training conditions in children with ASD either! S, Hervás A. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry the cognitive flexibility training difficulty level when reaching two three! With non-action video games and frequent sessions by degrees of personal attention as well as on multiple transfer covering... Second set of training tools developed to improve cognitive flexibility cognitive flexibility also relates.