(See Appendix K, Media Considerations.). The impact of the urban operations environment often differs from one operation to the next. (3)     Manipulate Key Facilities. These assault teams are characterized by integration of combined arms. ( Planning & Conducting Tactical Operations), Browse our collection of Military Reference SMARTbooks, Signup to keep up to date on updates and revisions, Website Development and Management by thirteen05 creative, Customer Service and Quotes: 863-409-8084 (Mon-Fri 0800-1700 EST) or 1-800-997-8827 (24-hour voicemail). Understanding the urban society requires comprehension of--. f.     As the companies move into the built-up area, they secure their own flanks. NOTE:     The task organization shown in Figure 6-7 may change after the assault when the battalion reorganizes for follow-on missions. The depot serves as a common location where vehicles are stored or maintained. If the illumination were behind the objective, the enemy troops would be in the shadows rather than in the light. The attack in an urban area differs because the close, complex nature of the terrain makes command, control, and communications, as well as massing fires to suppress the enemy, more difficult. The mission may require the battalion to systematically clear an area of all enemy. (See FM 34-130 for a detailed discussion of urban intelligence preparation of the battlefield.). Rain or melting snow often floods basements and subterranean areas, such as subways, and also makes storm and other sewer systems hazardous or impassable. During a mission of this type, the urban environment makes finding, fixing, and finishing the enemy difficult for conventional infantry forces. The enemy thinks and operates throughout all dimensions of the urban environment. They use reconnaissance and security forces; information systems; and reports from other headquarters, services, organizations, and agencies. Battalions defending in urban areas must prepare their positions for all-round defense. Use of news media channels in the immediate area of operations for other-than-emergency communications must also be coordinated through the S1 or civil affairs officer. However, it does not perform well against reinforced concrete found in larger urban areas. Army operations (offense, defense, stability, and support). a.     Troop Density, Equipment, and Ammunition. Battalions may fight adjacent to, on the edges of, or inside cities. Download a free PDF sample and learn more at: SUTS3: The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook, 3rd Ed. For high-angle artillery, the dead space is about one half the height of the building. Products that can be developed by the National Imagery Mapping Agency (NIMA) can be specifically tailored for the area of operations. 2. Ammunition effects to include white phosphorous and red phosphorous and the effects of obscurants. A deliberate offensive operation is a fully synchronized operation that employs all available assets against the enemy's defense, IAW with the ROE. Recognized as a “whole of government” doctrinal reference standard by military, national security and government professionals around the world, SMARTbooks comprise a comprehensive professional library. Their mission is to provide close and immediate fire support to the maneuver units. (a)     In certain situations requiring precise fire, snipers can provide an excellent method of isolating key areas while simultaneously minimizing collateral damage and noncombatant casualties. Initial rounds are adjusted laterally until a round impacts on the street perpendicular to the FEBA. If existing civilian or military communications facilities can be captured intact, they can also be used by the battalion. } Howitzers must be closely protected by infantry when used in the direct-fire mode since they do not have any significant protection for their crews. If the enemy does not withdraw, the battalion must clear the urban area before the next phase of the operation. Urban operations are resource- and Soldier-intensive. Targets should be planned on rooftops to clear away enemy FOs as well as communications and radar equipment. The commander’s ability to rapidly and accurately achieve an understanding of the urban environment contributes to seizing, retaining, and exploiting the initiative during UO. Browse additional military doctrine articles in our SMARTnews Blog & Resource Center. Areas, such as parks and broad streets, that provide fields of fire for tanks and antiarmor weapons. Some shaping operations may take months to successfully shape the AO. d.setTime(d.getTime() + 60 * 60 * 24 * 2 * 1000); Considerations include, but are not limited to, the following: a. Fire support officers at all levels must coordinate and rehearse contingencies that are inherent to nonlinear fire support coordination measures and clearance of fires. Defensive fire support in urban operations must take advantage of the impact of indirect fires on the enemy before he enters the protection of the urban area. (4)     An infrastructure analysis of the urban area is also important. h.     Preserve Critical Infrastructure. A detailed analysis of the urban area and surrounding terrain is vital to the success of any operation in an urban area (see FM 34-130 and FM 3-06.11). Position Selection. Public administration buildings, hospitals, and clinics. The increasing availability of sophisticated technology has created unorthodox operational approaches that can be exploited by potential opponents. Supported by direct fires from organic weapons systems onboard the ICV and the MGS, the battalion incorporates snipers, COLT fire support teams, mortars, artillery, mobility support, and joint fires and effects to provide the appropriate systems required for this integration. In the urban environment, functional, political, or social significance may determine what terrain is considered key or essential. (w/Change 1). Soldiers and leaders must maintain a sense of situational understanding and clearly mark their progress IAW unit SOP to avoid fratricide. Role of Mortar Units. However, the difficulties of night navigation in restricted terrain forces the battalion to rely on simple maneuver plans with easily recognizable objectives. June 2019; International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION 25(1):91 … This difference can be as great as 10 to 20 degrees and can reduce the effects of thermal sights and imaging systems. A combination of sectors, battle positions, strongpoints, roadblocks, checkpoints, security patrols, and OPs could be employed within the battalion sector or AO. Figure 6-13 depicts a movement to contact in an urban area using the search and attack technique. The battalion prepares to continue the attack or prepares for future missions, including the possible transition to stability and support operations. (1)     Safe Havens. Members of such resistance groups should be dealt with in accordance with applicable provisions of the law of war. (Plastic-Comb), CTS1: The Counterterrorism, WMD & Hybrid Threat SMARTbook (Plastic-Comb), JFODS5: The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, 5th Ed. Positions and areas that must be controlled to prevent enemy infiltration. This chapter provides guidance necessary for planning and executing missions in an urban environment. j. The commander and staff must clearly understand the purpose of the operation. (2)     Under media scrutiny, the actions of a single soldier may have significant strategic implications. U.S. Army Spc. f.     Forward observers must be able to determine where and how large the dead spaces are. Avishai Ceder (2007). Consolidate These assets normally support the battalion's transition efforts under SBCT control. INTEGRATING THE URBAN AREA INTO THE DEFENSE. The use of radio retransmissions is another technique that may apply in urban areas. It implies seizing or controlling key terrain or mounted and dismounted avenues of approach. Understand These operations may take place entirely within a city or may include multiple urban areas and may be influenced by interconnected surrounding areas. • Introduction to fundamentals of urban traffic engineering, including data collection, analysis, and design. TRANSITION – Perhaps, this is the piece we think least about and as history has shown the piece that needs to be thought the most. 3.26.1–33). Soldiers conducting close combat in an urban area. Normally, the reserve is planned at SBCT level. Internet websites provide easy worldwide dissemination of enemy propaganda and misinformation. The enemy may be on rooftops, in buildings, and in sewer and subway systems. The adjustments must be made by sound. Transitioning quickly to stability or support operations. d.     Divide the objective area into manageable smaller areas that facilitate company maneuver. The battalion is likely to respond to both symmetrical and asymmetrical threats within the area of operations. Use offensive fire and maneuver to retain the initiative. Shots from upper floors strike friendly armored vehicles in vulnerable points. Extensive combat in these urban areas involves units of division level and above. Through detailed analysis, the battalion commander may anticipate that he will be opposed by a strong, organized resistance or will be in areas having strongly constructed buildings close together. Therefore, the battalion must use close combat as its decisive operation only after shaping the urban area through aggressive reconnaissance and surveillance, isolation, precision fires, and maneuver. Disaster Response SMARTbook 3 - Disaster Preparedness, 2nd Ed. Search and attack technique. b. b. March 1987, Figure 6-9 depicts the urban operational framework as it applies to offensive operations and shows the tactical tasks of subordinate units. The commander orients the plan on the enemy rather than terrain. Figure 6-9. The battalion's objective may be terrain- or force-oriented. (1)     The proliferation of cell phones, Internet capability, and media outlets ensure close observation of unit activities. Promptly separating noncombatants from combatants may make the operation more efficient and diminish some of the enemy's asymmetrical advantages. 3. (2)     Winds. Figure 6-21. Throughout history, military planners have viewed cities as centers of gravity and sources of national strength. Urban operations are usually conducted against enemy forces fighting in close proximity to civilians. He must also consider restrictions to the attacker's ability to maneuver and observe. As the enemy threatens to overrun a battle position, the company disengages and delays back toward the next battle position. The following is an example that describes the actions of an SBCT infantry battalion conducting an infiltration with engineers attached. Figure 6-2. a. SMFLS4: The Sustainment & Multifunctional Logistics SMARTbook, 4th Ed. Introduction 6-1 6102. Careful use of variable time (VT) is required to avoid premature arming. These threats may use the civilian population and infrastructure to shield their capabilities from battalion fires. Adjusting fires is difficult since buildings block the view of adjusting rounds; therefore, the lateral method of adjustment may be most useful. SMARTbooks can be used as quick reference guides during operations, as study guides at education and professional development courses, and as lesson plans and checklists in support of training. Mission Command & Manoeuvrist Approach – Basic Principles of Nato Urban Operations. Sufficient covered and concealed routes for movement and repositioning of forces. FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN OPERATIONS The fundamentals described in this paragraph apply to UO regardless of the mission or geographical location. Expected personnel and equipment replacements that did not arrive. In addition to revisions and changes, we publish incremental "SMARTupdates" when feasible to update changes in doctrine or new publications in our SMARTbook series. 4. Commanders must plan adequate quantities and types of forces to successfully conduct urban operations. Such locations are normally found at major street intersections, in parks, and at the edge of open residential areas. Operations in urban areas usually occur when--. Defending from urban areas supports a more effective overall defense or cannot be avoided. Successful engagements also require the establishment of necessary levels of control and influence over all or portions of the AO until responsibilities can be transferred to other legitimate military or civilian control. In turn, this visualization forms the basis of operational design and decisionmaking. The increasing world population and accelerated growth of cities makes UO in future conflicts very likely. The battalion must be prepared to conduct UO operations in both contiguous and noncontiguous areas of operations. They orient themselves and achieve situational understanding based on a common operational picture and continuously updated CCIR. The characteristics and nature of combat in urban areas affect the results and employment of weapons. The strongpoints and reserves are normally deeper in the city. UO of all types are resource intensive and thus commanders must plan to conclude UO expediently yet consistent with successful mission accomplishment. It provides the framework of understanding for our approach to combat and to operations. Leaders must use care when planning mortar fires during UO to minimize collateral damage. In the example shown in Figure 6-10, the center battalion conducts a supporting attack to seize OBJ DOG. The SBCT should attempt to gain access to city planner or civil engineer maps to provide detailed information of the urban area. Thorough evaluation of the urban area's related terrain and enemy force may take much longer than in other environments. (2)     In noncontiguous operations, the battalion may be required to operate independently, removed from SBCT CS and CSS assets by distance and time. Figure 6-13. The most common and valuable use for mortars is often harassment and interdiction fires. Urban operations require centralized planning and decentralized execution; therefore, the staff must develop a detailed plan that synchronizes the battle operating systems in order to meet the commander's intent and provide subordinate units with the means to accomplish the mission. Figure 6-21 depicts a nodal defense where battalions employ different defensive techniques in order to achieve the SBCT commander's desired end state. c.     Communications. Figure 6-3. e.     High-Explosive Ammunition. It also includes selecting terrain that provides the ability to place suppressive fire on the objective. The assigned objective lies within an urban area and cannot be bypassed. Ambushes are closely coordinated but executed at the lowest levels. The most likely challenges are discussed in the following paragraphs. Example of population status overlay. Essential Elements of Friendly Information. c.     Special considerations apply to shell and fuze combinations when buildings limit effects of munitions: d.     Target acquisition is difficult in urban terrain because the enemy has many covered and concealed positions and movement lanes. These approaches seek to counter the technological and numerical advantages of US joint systems and forces and to exploit constraints placed on US forces due to cultural bias, media presence, ROE, and distance from the crisis location. • Intelligence in unified action. Battalion operations are affected by all categories of urban areas (Table 6-1). 6-3. Surfaces. Attempts to preserve the critical elements for post-combat sustainment operations, stability operations, support operations, or the health and well being of the indigenous population may be required. Attitudes toward US forces (friendly, hostile, or neutral). b. Reorganization and preparation for future missions occurs after consolidation. The defensive techniques chosen by subordinate companies should allow them to respond to the specific threats in their respective AOs, battle positions, or sectors. Inversion layers trap dust, chemical agents, and other pollutants, reducing visibility and often creating a greenhouse effect, which causes a rise in ground and air temperature. Evacuated civilians must be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area have ceased. (PREVIOUS EDITION), The Stability, Peace & Counterinsurgency SMARTbook (PREVIOUS EDITION), MEU2: The Marine Expeditionary Unit SMARTbook, 2nd Ed. Appropriate fire support coordination measures are essential because fighting in urban areas results in opposing forces fighting in close combat. The ultimate goal is to return the urban area to civilian control. Hazardous areas such as--, (3)     Major Terrain Features. The impact of the urban operations environment often differs from one operation to the next. An urban area is a topographical complex where manmade construction and the population are the dominant features. TASK-ORGANIZATION OF UNITS TO ACCOMPLISH SPECIFIC TASKS. Scatterable mines may be used to impede enemy movements. The application of firepower may become highly restricted based on the ROE. In the example shown in Figure 6-12, the battle positions are oriented to place fires on the enemy leaving OBJ EAGLE and to prevent his withdrawal from the objective area. The reconnaissance platoon, antiarmor units, and MGSs screen the battalion's most vulnerable flanks. (Population over 1 million to 10 million). Night and periods of reduced visibility (including fog) favor surprise, infiltration, detailed reconnaissance, attacks across open areas, seizure of defended strong points, and reduction of defended obstacles. Moving by stealth on secondary streets using the cover and concealment of back alleys and buildings, the battalion may be able to seize key street junctions or terrain features, to isolate enemy positions, and to help following units pass into the urban area. A division or corps most frequently conducts a mobile defense, but the SBCT is also capable of conducting a mobile defense. Tactical units may have to support a plan for the restoration of essential services that may fail to function upon their arrival or cease to function during an operation. The battalion divides its portion of the AO into smaller areas and coordinates the movement of companies. This article is an extract from “SUTS3: The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook, 3rd Ed. This may involve moving through open terrain, urban terrain, or both. fundamental. These SMARTupdates are printed/produced in a format that allow the reader to insert the change pages into the original GBC-bound book by simply opening the comb-binding and replacing affected pages. AFOPS2: The Air Force Operations & Planning SMARTbook, 2nd Ed. The IPB must consider the three-dimensional environment of urban areas: airspace, surface, and subsurface.